Title 58 Chapter 37 Section 8

Occupations and Professions
Utah Controlled Substances Act
Section 8
Prohibited acts -- Penalties.

            

58-37-8.   Prohibited acts -- Penalties.

            (1) Prohibited acts A -- Penalties:

            (a) Except as authorized by this chapter, it is unlawful for any person to knowingly and intentionally:

            (i) produce, manufacture, or dispense, or to possess with intent to produce, manufacture, or dispense, a controlled or counterfeit substance;

            (ii) distribute a controlled or counterfeit substance, or to agree, consent, offer, or arrange to distribute a controlled or counterfeit substance;

            (iii) possess a controlled or counterfeit substance with intent to distribute; or

            (iv) engage in a continuing criminal enterprise where:

            (A) the person participates, directs, or engages in conduct which results in any violation of any provision of Title 58, Chapters 37, 37a, 37b, 37c, or 37d that is a felony; and

            (B) the violation is a part of a continuing series of two or more violations of Title 58, Chapters 37, 37a, 37b, 37c, or 37d on separate occasions that are undertaken in concert with five or more persons with respect to whom the person occupies a position of organizer, supervisor, or any other position of management.

            (b) Any person convicted of violating Subsection (1)(a) with respect to:

            (i) a substance or a counterfeit of a substance classified in Schedule I or II, a controlled substance analog, or gammahydroxybutyric acid as listed in Schedule III is guilty of a second degree felony and upon a second or subsequent conviction is guilty of a first degree felony;

            (ii) a substance or a counterfeit of a substance classified in Schedule III or IV, or marijuana, or a substance listed in Section 58-37-4.2 is guilty of a third degree felony, and upon a second or subsequent conviction is guilty of a second degree felony; or

            (iii) a substance or a counterfeit of a substance classified in Schedule V is guilty of a class A misdemeanor and upon a second or subsequent conviction is guilty of a third degree felony.

            (c) Any person who has been convicted of a violation of Subsection (1)(a)(ii) or (iii) may be sentenced to imprisonment for an indeterminate term as provided by law, but if the trier of fact finds a firearm as defined in Section 76-10-501 was used, carried, or possessed on his person or in his immediate possession during the commission or in furtherance of the offense, the court shall additionally sentence the person convicted for a term of one year to run consecutively and not concurrently; and the court may additionally sentence the person convicted for an indeterminate term not to exceed five years to run consecutively and not concurrently.

            (d) Any person convicted of violating Subsection (1)(a)(iv) is guilty of a first degree felony punishable by imprisonment for an indeterminate term of not less than seven years and which may be for life. Imposition or execution of the sentence may not be suspended, and the person is not eligible for probation.

            (2) Prohibited acts B -- Penalties:

            (a) It is unlawful:

            (i) for any person knowingly and intentionally to possess or use a controlled substance analog or a controlled substance, unless it was obtained under a valid prescription or order, directly from a practitioner while acting in the course of the person's professional practice, or as otherwise authorized by this chapter;

            (ii) for any owner, tenant, licensee, or person in control of any building, room, tenement, vehicle, boat, aircraft, or other place knowingly and intentionally to permit them to be occupied by persons unlawfully possessing, using, or distributing controlled substances in any of those locations; or

            (iii) for any person knowingly and intentionally to possess an altered or forged prescription or written order for a controlled substance.

            (b) Any person convicted of violating Subsection (2)(a)(i) with respect to:

            (i) marijuana, if the amount is 100 pounds or more, is guilty of a second degree felony;

            (ii) a substance classified in Schedule I or II, marijuana, if the amount is more than 16 ounces, but less than 100 pounds, or a controlled substance analog, is guilty of a third degree felony; or

            (iii) marijuana, if the marijuana is not in the form of an extracted resin from any part of the plant, and the amount is more than one ounce but less than 16 ounces, is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

            (c) Upon a person's conviction of a violation of this Subsection (2) subsequent to a conviction under Subsection (1)(a), that person shall be sentenced to a one degree greater penalty than provided in this Subsection (2).

            (d) Any person who violates Subsection (2)(a)(i) with respect to all other controlled substances not included in Subsection (2)(b)(i), (ii), or (iii), including a substance listed in Section 58-37-4.2, or less than one ounce of marijuana, is guilty of a class B misdemeanor. Upon a second conviction the person is guilty of a class A misdemeanor, and upon a third or subsequent conviction the person is guilty of a third degree felony.

            (e) Any person convicted of violating Subsection (2)(a)(i) while inside the exterior boundaries of property occupied by any correctional facility as defined in Section 64-13-1 or any public jail or other place of confinement shall be sentenced to a penalty one degree greater than provided in Subsection (2)(b), and if the conviction is with respect to controlled substances as listed in:

            (i) Subsection (2)(b), the person may be sentenced to imprisonment for an indeterminate term as provided by law, and:

            (A) the court shall additionally sentence the person convicted to a term of one year to run consecutively and not concurrently; and

            (B) the court may additionally sentence the person convicted for an indeterminate term not to exceed five years to run consecutively and not concurrently; and

            (ii) Subsection (2)(d), the person may be sentenced to imprisonment for an indeterminate term as provided by law, and the court shall additionally sentence the person convicted to a term of six months to run consecutively and not concurrently.

            (f) Any person convicted of violating Subsection (2)(a)(ii) or(iii) is:

            (i) on a first conviction, guilty of a class B misdemeanor;

            (ii) on a second conviction, guilty of a class A misdemeanor; and

            (iii) on a third or subsequent conviction, guilty of a third degree felony.

            (g) A person is subject to the penalties under Subsection (2)(h) who, in an offense not amounting to a violation of Section 76-5-207:

            (i) violates Subsection (2)(a)(i) by knowingly and intentionally having in the person's body any measurable amount of a controlled substance; and

            (ii) operates a motor vehicle as defined in Section 76-5-207 in a negligent manner, causing serious bodily injury as defined in Section 76-1-601 or the death of another.

            (h) A person who violates Subsection (2)(g) by having in the person's body:

            (i) a controlled substance classified under Schedule I, other than those described in Subsection (2)(h)(ii), or a controlled substance classified under Schedule II is guilty of a second degree felony;

            (ii) marijuana, tetrahydrocannabinols, or equivalents described in Subsection 58-37-4(2)(a)(iii)(S) or (AA), or a substance listed in Section 58-37-4.2 is guilty of a third degree felony; or

            (iii) any controlled substance classified under Schedules III, IV, or V is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

            (i) A person is guilty of a separate offense for each victim suffering serious bodily injury or death as a result of the person's negligent driving in violation of Subsection 58-37-8(2)(g) whether or not the injuries arise from the same episode of driving.

            (3) Prohibited acts C -- Penalties:

            (a) It is unlawful for any person knowingly and intentionally:

            (i) to use in the course of the manufacture or distribution of a controlled substance a license number which is fictitious, revoked, suspended, or issued to another person or, for the purpose of obtaining a controlled substance, to assume the title of, or represent oneself to be, a manufacturer, wholesaler, apothecary, physician, dentist, veterinarian, or other authorized person;

            (ii) to acquire or obtain possession of, to procure or attempt to procure the administration of, to obtain a prescription for, to prescribe or dispense to any person known to be attempting to acquire or obtain possession of, or to procure the administration of any controlled substance by misrepresentation or failure by the person to disclose receiving any controlled substance from another source, fraud, forgery, deception, subterfuge, alteration of a prescription or written order for a controlled substance, or the use of a false name or address;

            (iii) to make any false or forged prescription or written order for a controlled substance, or to utter the same, or to alter any prescription or written order issued or written under the terms of this chapter; or

            (iv) to make, distribute, or possess any punch, die, plate, stone, or other thing designed to print, imprint, or reproduce the trademark, trade name, or other identifying mark, imprint, or device of another or any likeness of any of the foregoing upon any drug or container or labeling so as to render any drug a counterfeit controlled substance.

            (b) Any person convicted of violating Subsection (3)(a) is guilty of a third degree felony.

            (4) Prohibited acts D -- Penalties:

            (a) Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, a person not authorized under this chapter who commits any act declared to be unlawful under this section, Title 58, Chapter 37a, Utah Drug Paraphernalia Act, or under Title 58, Chapter 37b, Imitation Controlled Substances Act, is upon conviction subject to the penalties and classifications under this Subsection (4) if the trier of fact finds the act is committed:

            (i) in a public or private elementary or secondary school or on the grounds of any of those schools;

            (ii) in a public or private vocational school or postsecondary institution or on the grounds of any of those schools or institutions;

            (iii) in those portions of any building, park, stadium, or other structure or grounds which are, at the time of the act, being used for an activity sponsored by or through a school or institution under Subsections (4)(a)(i) and (ii);

            (iv) in or on the grounds of a preschool or child-care facility;

            (v) in a public park, amusement park, arcade, or recreation center;

            (vi) in or on the grounds of a house of worship as defined in Section 76-10-501;

            (vii) in a shopping mall, sports facility, stadium, arena, theater, movie house, playhouse, or parking lot or structure adjacent thereto;

            (viii) in or on the grounds of a library;

            (ix) within any area that is within 1,000 feet of any structure, facility, or grounds included in Subsections (4)(a)(i), (ii), (iv), (vi), and (vii);

            (x) in the presence of a person younger than 18 years of age, regardless of where the act occurs; or

            (xi) for the purpose of facilitating, arranging, or causing the transport, delivery, or distribution of a substance in violation of this section to an inmate or on the grounds of any correctional facility as defined in Section 76-8-311.3.

            (b) (i) A person convicted under this Subsection (4) is guilty of a first degree felony and shall be imprisoned for a term of not less than five years if the penalty that would otherwise have been established but for this Subsection (4) would have been a first degree felony.

            (ii) Imposition or execution of the sentence may not be suspended, and the person is not eligible for probation.

            (c) If the classification that would otherwise have been established would have been less than a first degree felony but for this Subsection (4), a person convicted under this Subsection (4) is guilty of one degree more than the maximum penalty prescribed for that offense. This Subsection (4)(c) does not apply to a violation of Subsection (2)(g).

            (d) (i) If the violation is of Subsection (4)(a)(xi):

            (A) the person may be sentenced to imprisonment for an indeterminate term as provided by law, and the court shall additionally sentence the person convicted for a term of one year to run consecutively and not concurrently; and

            (B) the court may additionally sentence the person convicted for an indeterminate term not to exceed five years to run consecutively and not concurrently; and

            (ii) the penalties under this Subsection (4)(d) apply also to any person who, acting with the mental state required for the commission of an offense, directly or indirectly solicits, requests, commands, coerces, encourages, or intentionally aids another person to commit a violation of Subsection (4)(a)(xi).

            (e) It is not a defense to a prosecution under this Subsection (4) that the actor mistakenly believed the individual to be 18 years of age or older at the time of the offense or was unaware of the individual's true age; nor that the actor mistakenly believed that the location where the act occurred was not as described in Subsection (4)(a) or was unaware that the location where the act occurred was as described in Subsection (4)(a).

            (5) Any violation of this chapter for which no penalty is specified is a class B misdemeanor.

            (6) For purposes of penalty enhancement under Subsections (1)(b) and (2)(c), a plea of guilty or no contest to a violation of this section which is held in abeyance under Title 77, Chapter 2a, Pleas in Abeyance, is the equivalent of a conviction, even if the charge has been subsequently reduced or dismissed in accordance with the plea in abeyance agreement.

            (7) A person may be charged and sentenced for a violation of this section, notwithstanding a charge and sentence for a violation of any other section of this chapter.

            (8) (a) Any penalty imposed for violation of this section is in addition to, and not in lieu of, any civil or administrative penalty or sanction authorized by law.

            (b) Where violation of this chapter violates a federal law or the law of another state, conviction or acquittal under federal law or the law of another state for the same act is a bar to prosecution in this state.

            (9) In any prosecution for a violation of this chapter, evidence or proof which shows a person or persons produced, manufactured, possessed, distributed, or dispensed a controlled substance or substances, is prima facie evidence that the person or persons did so with knowledge of the character of the substance or substances.

            (10) This section does not prohibit a veterinarian, in good faith and in the course of the veterinarian's professional practice only and not for humans, from prescribing, dispensing, or administering controlled substances or from causing the substances to be administered by an assistant or orderly under the veterinarian's direction and supervision.

            (11) Civil or criminal liability may not be imposed under this section on:

            (a) any person registered under this chapter who manufactures, distributes, or possesses an imitation controlled substance for use as a placebo or investigational new drug by a registered practitioner in the ordinary course of professional practice or research; or

            (b) any law enforcement officer acting in the course and legitimate scope of the officer's employment.

            (12) (a) Civil or criminal liability may not be imposed under this section on any Indian, as defined in Subsection 58-37-2(1)(v), who uses, possesses, or transports peyote for bona fide traditional ceremonial purposes in connection with the practice of a traditional Indian religion as defined in Subsection 58-37-2(1)(w).

            (b) In a prosecution alleging violation of this section regarding peyote as defined in Subsection 58-37-4(2)(a)(iii)(V), it is an affirmative defense that the peyote was used, possessed, or transported by an Indian for bona fide traditional ceremonial purposes in connection with the practice of a traditional Indian religion.

            (c) (i) The defendant shall provide written notice of intent to claim an affirmative defense under this Subsection (12) as soon as practicable, but not later than 10 days prior to trial.

            (ii) The notice shall include the specific claims of the affirmative defense.

            (iii) The court may waive the notice requirement in the interest of justice for good cause shown, if the prosecutor is not unfairly prejudiced by the lack of timely notice.

            (d) The defendant shall establish the affirmative defense under this Subsection (12) by a preponderance of the evidence. If the defense is established, it is a complete defense to the charges.

            (13) (a) It is an affirmative defense that the person produced, possessed, or administered a controlled substance listed in Section 58-37-4.2 if the person:

            (i) was engaged in medical research; and

            (ii) was a holder of a valid license to possess controlled substances under Section 58-37-6.

            (b) It is not a defense under Subsection (13)(a) that the person prescribed or dispensed a controlled substance listed in Section 58-37-4.2.

            (14) It is an affirmative defense that the person possessed, in the person's body, a controlled substance listed in Section 58-37-4.2 if:

            (a) the person was the subject of medical research conducted by a holder of a valid license to possess controlled substances under Section 58-37-6; and

            (b) the substance was administered to the person by the medical researcher.

            (15) If any provision of this chapter, or the application of any provision to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of this chapter shall be given effect without the invalid provision or application.

            (16) A legislative body of a political subdivision may not enact an ordinance that is less restrictive than any provision of this chapter.


Amended by Chapter 12, 2011 General Session