7 LONG TITLE
8 General Description:
9 This bill amends cruelty to animals provisions to address a dog at a residence in
10 extreme weather conditions.
11 Highlighted Provisions:
12 This bill:
13 ▸ defines terms;
14 ▸ makes it a crime to leave a dog unattended in a certain manner that prevents the dog
15 from reaching shelter in extreme weather conditions; and
16 ▸ makes technical and conforming changes.
17 Money Appropriated in this Bill:
19 Other Special Clauses:
21 Utah Code Sections Affected:
23 76-9-301, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2015, Chapter 329
24 76-9-301.5, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2008, Chapter 292
25 76-9-301.6, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2008, Chapter 292
26 76-10-1602, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2014, Chapter 167
28 Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
29 Section 1. Section 76-9-301 is amended to read:
30 76-9-301. Cruelty to animals.
31 (1) As used in this section:
32 (a) (i) "Abandon" means to intentionally deposit, leave, or drop off any live animal:
33 (A) without providing for the care of that animal, in accordance with accepted animal
34 husbandry practices or customary farming practices; or
35 (B) in a situation where conditions present an immediate, direct, and serious threat to
36 the life, safety, or health of the animal.
37 (ii) "Abandon" does not include returning wildlife to its natural habitat.
38 (b) (i) "Animal" means, except as provided in Subsection (1)(b)(ii), a live, nonhuman
39 vertebrate creature.
40 (ii) "Animal" does not include[
41 conduct toward the creature, and the care provided to the creature, is in accordance with
42 accepted animal husbandry practices[
44 the American Zoo and Aquarium Association;
47 the United States Department of Agriculture under 7 U.S.C. Sec. 2133[
48 (iii) "Animal" also does not include:
50 purposes, if the conduct toward the creature, and the care provided to the creature, is in
51 accordance with accepted rodeo practices;
53 creature, is in accordance with accepted animal husbandry practices or customary farming
54 practices; or
56 wildlife, if the conduct toward the wildlife is in accordance with lawful hunting, fishing, or
57 trapping practices or other lawful practices.
58 (c) "Companion animal" means an animal that is a domestic dog or a domestic cat.
59 (d) "Custody" means ownership, possession, or control over an animal.
60 (e) "Legal privilege" means an act that:
61 (i) is authorized by state law, including Division of Wildlife Resources rules; and
62 (ii) is not in violation of a local ordinance.
63 (f) "Livestock" means:
64 (i) domesticated:
65 (A) cattle;
66 (B) sheep;
67 (C) goats;
68 (D) turkeys;
69 (E) swine;
70 (F) equines;
71 (G) camelidae;
72 (H) ratites; or
73 (I) bison;
74 (ii) domesticated elk, as defined in Section 4-39-102; or
75 (iii) any domesticated nonhuman vertebrate creature, domestic furbearer, or domestic
76 poultry, raised, kept, or used for agricultural purposes.
77 (g) "Necessary food, water, care, or shelter" means the following, taking into account
78 the species, age, and physical condition of the animal:
79 (i) appropriate and essential food and water;
80 (ii) adequate protection, including appropriate shelter, against extreme weather
81 conditions; and
82 (iii) other essential care.
83 (h) (i) "Shelter," in relation to a dog at a permanent residence, means a barn, dog
84 house, or other structure that:
85 (A) is sufficiently sound to protect against extreme weather conditions;
86 (B) prevents penetration by moisture;
87 (C) includes, in an appropriate size for the dog, a roof, a door or entry portal, and
88 sufficient space to allow for freedom of movement; and
89 (D) contains hay, straw, bedding, a floor with a solid surface, or a safe and artificial
90 heat source, that allows the dog to maintain a normal body temperature.
91 (ii) "Shelter" does not include:
92 (A) a crawl space;
93 (B) the space under a vehicle;
94 (C) an animal carrier or crate designed for temporary transport or temporary housing;
95 (D) a structure made of cardboard or another material that is easily degradable; or
96 (E) a structure with a wire or chain link floor.
98 physical pain to an animal in an especially heinous, atrocious, cruel, or exceptionally depraved
100 (2) Except as provided in Subsection (4) or (6), a person is guilty of cruelty to an
101 animal if the person, without legal privilege to do so, intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, or
102 with criminal negligence:
103 (a) fails to provide necessary food, water, care, or shelter for an animal in the person's
105 (b) abandons an animal in the person's custody;
106 (c) injures an animal;
107 (d) in a county of the first class, leaves a dog of which the person has custody
108 unattended in a manner that prevents the dog from reaching shelter when the dog is exposed to
109 extreme weather conditions;
111 animal of like kind for amusement or gain; or
113 of animal or creature for amusement or gain.
114 (3) Except as provided in Section 76-9-301.7, a violation of Subsection (2) is:
115 (a) a class B misdemeanor if committed intentionally or knowingly; and
116 (b) a class C misdemeanor if committed recklessly or with criminal negligence.
117 (4) A person is guilty of aggravated cruelty to an animal if the person:
118 (a) tortures an animal;
119 (b) administers, or causes to be administered, poison or a poisonous substance to an
120 animal; or
121 (c) kills an animal or causes an animal to be killed without having a legal privilege to
122 do so.
123 (5) Except as provided in Subsection (6) or Section 76-9-301.7, a violation of
124 Subsection (4) is:
125 (a) a class A misdemeanor if committed intentionally or knowingly;
126 (b) a class B misdemeanor if committed recklessly; and
127 (c) a class C misdemeanor if committed with criminal negligence.
128 (6) A person is guilty of a third degree felony if the person intentionally or knowingly
129 tortures a companion animal.
130 (7) It is a defense to prosecution under this section that the conduct of the actor towards
131 the animal was:
132 (a) by a licensed veterinarian using accepted veterinary practice;
133 (b) directly related to bona fide experimentation for scientific research, provided that if
134 the animal is to be destroyed, the manner employed will not be unnecessarily cruel unless
135 directly necessary to the veterinary purpose or scientific research involved;
136 (c) permitted under Section 18-1-3;
137 (d) by a person who humanely destroys any animal found suffering past recovery for
138 any useful purpose; or
139 (e) by a person who humanely destroys any apparently abandoned animal found on the
140 person's property.
141 (8) For purposes of Subsection (7)(d), before destroying the suffering animal, the
142 person who is not the owner of the animal shall obtain:
143 (a) the judgment of a veterinarian of the animal's nonrecoverable condition;
144 (b) the judgment of two other persons called by the person to view the unrecoverable
145 condition of the animal in the person's presence;
146 (c) the consent from the owner of the animal to the destruction of the animal; or
147 (d) a reasonable conclusion that the animal's suffering is beyond recovery, through the
148 person's own observation, if the person is in a location or circumstance where the person is
149 unable to contact another person.
150 (9) This section does not affect or prohibit:
151 (a) the training, instruction, and grooming of animals, if the methods used are in
152 accordance with accepted animal husbandry practices or customary farming practices;
153 (b) the use of an electronic locating or training collar by the owner of an animal for the
154 purpose of lawful animal training, lawful hunting practices, or protecting against loss of that
155 animal; or
156 (c) the lawful hunting of, fishing for, or trapping of, wildlife.
157 (10) County and municipal governments may not prohibit the use of an electronic
158 locating or training collar.
159 (11) Upon conviction under this section, the court may in its discretion, in addition to
160 other penalties:
161 (a) order the defendant to be evaluated to determine the need for psychiatric or
162 psychological counseling, to receive counseling as the court determines to be appropriate, and
163 to pay the costs of the evaluation and counseling;
164 (b) require the defendant to forfeit any rights the defendant has to the animal subjected
165 to a violation of this section and to repay the reasonable costs incurred by any person or agency
166 in caring for each animal subjected to violation of this section;
167 (c) order the defendant to no longer possess or retain custody of any animal, as
168 specified by the court, during the period of the defendant's probation or parole or other period
169 as designated by the court; and
170 (d) order the animal to be placed for the purpose of adoption or care in the custody of a
171 county or municipal animal control agency or an animal welfare agency registered with the
172 state to be sold at public auction or humanely destroyed.
173 (12) This section does not prohibit the use of animals in lawful training.
174 (13) A veterinarian who, acting in good faith, reports a violation of this section to law
175 enforcement may not be held civilly liable for making the report.
176 Section 2. Section 76-9-301.5 is amended to read:
177 76-9-301.5. Spectator at organized animal fighting exhibitions.
178 It is unlawful for a person to knowingly be present as a spectator at any place, building,
179 or tenement where preparations are being made for an exhibition of the fighting of animals, as
180 prohibited by Subsections 76-9-301(2)[
181 regardless of whether any entrance fee has been charged. A person who violates this section is
182 guilty of a class B misdemeanor.
183 Section 3. Section 76-9-301.6 is amended to read:
184 76-9-301.6. Dog fighting exhibition -- Authority to arrest and take possession of
185 dogs and property.
186 (1) A peace officer as defined in Title 53, Chapter 13, Peace Officer Classifications,
187 may enter any place, building, or tenement where an exhibition of dog fighting is occurring, or
188 where preparations are being made for such an exhibition and, without a warrant, arrest all
189 persons present.
190 (2) (a) Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 76-9-305, any authorized officer who
191 makes an arrest under Subsection (1) may lawfully take possession of all dogs, paraphernalia,
192 implements, or other property or things used or employed, or to be employed, in an exhibition
193 of dog fighting prohibited by Subsection 76-9-301(2)[
194 (b) The officer, at the time of the taking of property pursuant to Subsection (2)(a), shall
195 state his name and provide other identifying information to the person in charge of the dogs or
196 property taken.
197 (3) (a) After taking possession of dogs, paraphernalia, implements, or other property or
198 things under Subsection (2), the officer shall file an affidavit with the judge or magistrate
199 before whom a complaint has been made against any person arrested under this section.
200 (b) The affidavit shall include:
201 (i) the name of the person charged in the complaint;
202 (ii) a description of all property taken;
203 (iii) the time and place of the taking of the property;
204 (iv) the name of the person from whom the property was taken;
205 (v) the name of the person who claims to own the property, if known; and
206 (vi) a statement that the officer has reason to believe and believes that the property
207 taken was used or employed, or was to be used or employed, in violation of Section 76-9-301
208 or 76-9-301.1, and the grounds for the belief.
209 (4) (a) The officer shall deliver the confiscated property to the judge or magistrate who
210 shall, by order, place the property in the custody of the officer or any other person designated in
211 the order, and that person shall keep the property until conviction or final discharge of the
212 person against whom the complaint was made.
213 (b) The person designated in Subsection (4)(a) shall assume immediate custody of the
214 property, and retain the property until further order of the court.
215 (c) Upon conviction of the person charged, all confiscated property shall be forfeited
216 and destroyed or otherwise disposed of, as the court may order.
217 (d) If the person charged is acquitted or discharged without conviction, the court shall,
218 on demand, order the property to be returned to its owner.
219 Section 4. Section 76-10-1602 is amended to read:
220 76-10-1602. Definitions.
221 As used in this part:
222 (1) "Enterprise" means any individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation,
223 business trust, association, or other legal entity, and any union or group of individuals
224 associated in fact although not a legal entity, and includes illicit as well as licit entities.
225 (2) "Pattern of unlawful activity" means engaging in conduct which constitutes the
226 commission of at least three episodes of unlawful activity, which episodes are not isolated, but
227 have the same or similar purposes, results, participants, victims, or methods of commission, or
228 otherwise are interrelated by distinguishing characteristics. Taken together, the episodes shall
229 demonstrate continuing unlawful conduct and be related either to each other or to the
230 enterprise. At least one of the episodes comprising a pattern of unlawful activity shall have
231 occurred after July 31, 1981. The most recent act constituting part of a pattern of unlawful
232 activity as defined by this part shall have occurred within five years of the commission of the
233 next preceding act alleged as part of the pattern.
234 (3) "Person" includes any individual or entity capable of holding a legal or beneficial
235 interest in property, including state, county, and local governmental entities.
236 (4) "Unlawful activity" means to directly engage in conduct or to solicit, request,
237 command, encourage, or intentionally aid another person to engage in conduct which would
238 constitute any offense described by the following crimes or categories of crimes, or to attempt
239 or conspire to engage in an act which would constitute any of those offenses, regardless of
240 whether the act is in fact charged or indicted by any authority or is classified as a misdemeanor
241 or a felony:
242 (a) any act prohibited by the criminal provisions of Title 13, Chapter 10, Unauthorized
243 Recording Practices Act;
244 (b) any act prohibited by the criminal provisions of Title 19, Environmental Quality
245 Code, Sections 19-1-101 through 19-7-109;
246 (c) taking, destroying, or possessing wildlife or parts of wildlife for the primary
247 purpose of sale, trade, or other pecuniary gain, in violation of Title 23, Wildlife Resources
248 Code of Utah, or Section 23-20-4;
249 (d) false claims for medical benefits, kickbacks, and any other act prohibited by Title
250 26, Chapter 20, Utah False Claims Act, Sections 26-20-1 through 26-20-12;
251 (e) any act prohibited by the criminal provisions of Title 32B, Chapter 4, Criminal
252 Offenses and Procedure Act;
253 (f) any act prohibited by the criminal provisions of Title 57, Chapter 11, Utah Uniform
254 Land Sales Practices Act;
255 (g) any act prohibited by the criminal provisions of Title 58, Chapter 37, Utah
256 Controlled Substances Act, or Title 58, Chapter 37b, Imitation Controlled Substances Act,
257 Title 58, Chapter 37c, Utah Controlled Substance Precursor Act, or Title 58, Chapter 37d,
258 Clandestine Drug Lab Act;
259 (h) any act prohibited by the criminal provisions of Title 61, Chapter 1, Utah Uniform
260 Securities Act;
261 (i) any act prohibited by the criminal provisions of Title 63G, Chapter 6a, Utah
262 Procurement Code;
263 (j) assault or aggravated assault, Sections 76-5-102 and 76-5-103;
264 (k) a threat of terrorism, Section 76-5-107.3;
265 (l) criminal homicide, Sections 76-5-201, 76-5-202, and 76-5-203;
266 (m) kidnapping or aggravated kidnapping, Sections 76-5-301 and 76-5-302;
267 (n) human trafficking, human smuggling, or aggravated human trafficking, Sections
268 76-5-308, 76-5-309, and 76-5-310;
269 (o) sexual exploitation of a minor, Section 76-5b-201;
270 (p) arson or aggravated arson, Sections 76-6-102 and 76-6-103;
271 (q) causing a catastrophe, Section 76-6-105;
272 (r) burglary or aggravated burglary, Sections 76-6-202 and 76-6-203;
273 (s) burglary of a vehicle, Section 76-6-204;
274 (t) manufacture or possession of an instrument for burglary or theft, Section 76-6-205;
275 (u) robbery or aggravated robbery, Sections 76-6-301 and 76-6-302;
276 (v) theft, Section 76-6-404;
277 (w) theft by deception, Section 76-6-405;
278 (x) theft by extortion, Section 76-6-406;
279 (y) receiving stolen property, Section 76-6-408;
280 (z) theft of services, Section 76-6-409;
281 (aa) forgery, Section 76-6-501;
282 (bb) fraudulent use of a credit card, Sections 76-6-506.2, 76-6-506.3, 76-6-506.5, and
284 (cc) deceptive business practices, Section 76-6-507;
285 (dd) bribery or receiving bribe by person in the business of selection, appraisal, or
286 criticism of goods, Section 76-6-508;
287 (ee) bribery of a labor official, Section 76-6-509;
288 (ff) defrauding creditors, Section 76-6-511;
289 (gg) acceptance of deposit by insolvent financial institution, Section 76-6-512;
290 (hh) unlawful dealing with property by fiduciary, Section 76-6-513;
291 (ii) bribery or threat to influence contest, Section 76-6-514;
292 (jj) making a false credit report, Section 76-6-517;
293 (kk) criminal simulation, Section 76-6-518;
294 (ll) criminal usury, Section 76-6-520;
295 (mm) fraudulent insurance act, Section 76-6-521;
296 (nn) retail theft, Section 76-6-602;
297 (oo) computer crimes, Section 76-6-703;
298 (pp) identity fraud, Section 76-6-1102;
299 (qq) mortgage fraud, Section 76-6-1203;
300 (rr) sale of a child, Section 76-7-203;
301 (ss) bribery to influence official or political actions, Section 76-8-103;
302 (tt) threats to influence official or political action, Section 76-8-104;
303 (uu) receiving bribe or bribery by public servant, Section 76-8-105;
304 (vv) receiving bribe or bribery for endorsement of person as public servant, Section
306 (ww) official misconduct, Sections 76-8-201 and 76-8-202;
307 (xx) obstruction of justice, Section 76-8-306;
308 (yy) acceptance of bribe or bribery to prevent criminal prosecution, Section 76-8-308;
309 (zz) false or inconsistent material statements, Section 76-8-502;
310 (aaa) false or inconsistent statements, Section 76-8-503;
311 (bbb) written false statements, Section 76-8-504;
312 (ccc) tampering with a witness or soliciting or receiving a bribe, Section 76-8-508;
313 (ddd) retaliation against a witness, victim, or informant, Section 76-8-508.3;
314 (eee) extortion or bribery to dismiss criminal proceeding, Section 76-8-509;
315 (fff) tampering with evidence, Section 76-8-510.5;
316 (ggg) falsification or alteration of government record, Section 76-8-511, if the record is
317 a record described in Title 20A, Election Code, or Title 36, Chapter 11, Lobbyist Disclosure
318 and Regulation Act;
319 (hhh) public assistance fraud in violation of Section 76-8-1203, 76-8-1204, or
321 (iii) unemployment insurance fraud, Section 76-8-1301;
322 (jjj) intentionally or knowingly causing one animal to fight with another, Subsection
324 (kkk) possession, use, or removal of explosives, chemical, or incendiary devices or
325 parts, Section 76-10-306;
326 (lll) delivery to common carrier, mailing, or placement on premises of an incendiary
327 device, Section 76-10-307;
328 (mmm) possession of a deadly weapon with intent to assault, Section 76-10-507;
329 (nnn) unlawful marking of pistol or revolver, Section 76-10-521;
330 (ooo) alteration of number or mark on pistol or revolver, Section 76-10-522;
331 (ppp) forging or counterfeiting trademarks, trade name, or trade device, Section
333 (qqq) selling goods under counterfeited trademark, trade name, or trade devices,
334 Section 76-10-1003;
335 (rrr) sales in containers bearing registered trademark of substituted articles, Section
337 (sss) selling or dealing with article bearing registered trademark or service mark with
338 intent to defraud, Section 76-10-1006;
339 (ttt) gambling, Section 76-10-1102;
340 (uuu) gambling fraud, Section 76-10-1103;
341 (vvv) gambling promotion, Section 76-10-1104;
342 (www) possessing a gambling device or record, Section 76-10-1105;
343 (xxx) confidence game, Section 76-10-1109;
344 (yyy) distributing pornographic material, Section 76-10-1204;
345 (zzz) inducing acceptance of pornographic material, Section 76-10-1205;
346 (aaaa) dealing in harmful material to a minor, Section 76-10-1206;
347 (bbbb) distribution of pornographic films, Section 76-10-1222;
348 (cccc) indecent public displays, Section 76-10-1228;
349 (dddd) prostitution, Section 76-10-1302;
350 (eeee) aiding prostitution, Section 76-10-1304;
351 (ffff) exploiting prostitution, Section 76-10-1305;
352 (gggg) aggravated exploitation of prostitution, Section 76-10-1306;
353 (hhhh) communications fraud, Section 76-10-1801;
354 (iiii) any act prohibited by the criminal provisions of Part 19, Money Laundering and
355 Currency Transaction Reporting Act;
356 (jjjj) vehicle compartment for contraband, Section 76-10-2801;
357 (kkkk) any act prohibited by the criminal provisions of the laws governing taxation in
358 this state; and
359 (llll) any act illegal under the laws of the United States and enumerated in 18 U.S.C.
360 Sec. 1961(1)(B), (C), and (D).