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[Status][Bill Documents][Fiscal Note][Bills Directory]

S.B. 168

             1     

UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE - ARTICLE 9

             2     
- SECURED TRANSACTIONS

             3     
2000 GENERAL SESSION

             4     
STATE OF UTAH

             5     
Sponsor: Lyle W. Hillyard

             6      AN ACT RELATING TO THE UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE; REPEALING THE
             7      FORMER CHAPTER 9; ADOPTING THE NEW UNIFORM ARTICLE 9 WITH CHANGES;
             8      INCLUDING GENERAL PROVISIONS; ADDRESSING EFFECTIVENESS OF SECURITY
             9      AGREEMENTS; ADDRESSING ATTACHMENT OF SECURITY INTERESTS; ADDRESSING
             10      RIGHTS OF PARTIES TO SECURITY AGREEMENTS; ADDRESSING PERFECTION AND
             11      PRIORITY; ADDRESSING RIGHTS OF THIRD PARTIES; ADDRESSING FILING;
             12      ADDRESSING DEFAULT; ADDRESSING THE TRANSITION FROM THE OLD TO THE
             13      NEW LAW; MAKING TECHNICAL CHANGES; AND PROVIDING AN EFFECTIVE DATE.
             14      This act affects sections of Utah Code Annotated 1953 as follows:
             15      AMENDS:
             16          15-4-6.5, as enacted by Chapter 257, Laws of Utah 1991
             17          25-6-9, as enacted by Chapter 59, Laws of Utah 1988
             18          31A-22-419, as last amended by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1986
             19          38-7-2.5, as enacted by Chapter 167, Laws of Utah 1996
             20          38-8-2, as last amended by Chapter 66, Laws of Utah 1984
             21          38-12-102, as enacted by Chapter 323, Laws of Utah 1995
             22          38-12-103, as enacted by Chapter 323, Laws of Utah 1995
             23          41-1a-223, as renumbered and amended by Chapter 1, Laws of Utah 1992
             24          41-1a-601, as renumbered and amended by Chapter 1, Laws of Utah 1992
             25          41-1a-606, as renumbered and amended by Chapter 1, Laws of Utah 1992
             26          57-3-102, as renumbered and amended by Chapter 61 and last amended by Chapter 85,
             27      Laws of Utah 1998


             28          57-16-9, as enacted by Chapter 178, Laws of Utah 1981
             29          58-37-13, as last amended by Chapters 198 and 294, Laws of Utah 1996
             30          70A-1-105, as last amended by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             31          70A-1-201, as last amended by Chapter 13, Laws of Utah 1998
             32          70A-1-206, as last amended by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             33          70A-2-103, as last amended by Chapter 10, Laws of Utah 1997
             34          70A-2-210, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             35          70A-2-326, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             36          70A-2-502, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             37          70A-2-716, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             38          70A-2a-103, as last amended by Chapter 237, Laws of Utah 1993
             39          70A-2a-303, as last amended by Chapter 237, Laws of Utah 1993
             40          70A-2a-307, as last amended by Chapter 237, Laws of Utah 1993
             41          70A-2a-309, as last amended by Chapter 237, Laws of Utah 1993
             42          70A-3-605, as repealed and reenacted by Chapter 237, Laws of Utah 1993
             43          70A-4-210, as repealed and reenacted by Chapter 237, Laws of Utah 1993
             44          70A-5-114, as repealed and reenacted by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             45          70A-7-503, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             46          70A-8-102, as repealed and reenacted by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             47          70A-8-105, as repealed and reenacted by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             48          70A-8-109, as enacted by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             49          70A-8-301, as repealed and reenacted by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             50          70A-8-302, as repealed and reenacted by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             51          70A-8-510, as enacted by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             52      ENACTS:
             53          57-3-108, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             54          70A-5-120, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             55          70A-9a-101, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             56          70A-9a-102, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             57          70A-9a-102.1, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             58          70A-9a-103, Utah Code Annotated 1953


             59          70A-9a-104, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             60          70A-9a-105, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             61          70A-9a-106, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             62          70A-9a-107, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             63          70A-9a-108, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             64          70A-9a-109, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             65          70A-9a-110, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             66          70A-9a-201, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             67          70A-9a-202, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             68          70A-9a-203, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             69          70A-9a-204, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             70          70A-9a-205, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             71          70A-9a-206, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             72          70A-9a-207, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             73          70A-9a-208, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             74          70A-9a-209, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             75          70A-9a-210, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             76          70A-9a-301, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             77          70A-9a-302, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             78          70A-9a-303, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             79          70A-9a-304, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             80          70A-9a-305, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             81          70A-9a-306, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             82          70A-9a-307, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             83          70A-9a-308, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             84          70A-9a-309, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             85          70A-9a-310, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             86          70A-9a-311, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             87          70A-9a-312, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             88          70A-9a-313, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             89          70A-9a-314, Utah Code Annotated 1953


             90          70A-9a-315, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             91          70A-9a-316, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             92          70A-9a-317, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             93          70A-9a-318, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             94          70A-9a-319, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             95          70A-9a-320, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             96          70A-9a-321, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             97          70A-9a-322, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             98          70A-9a-323, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             99          70A-9a-324, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             100          70A-9a-325, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             101          70A-9a-326, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             102          70A-9a-327, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             103          70A-9a-328, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             104          70A-9a-329, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             105          70A-9a-330, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             106          70A-9a-331, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             107          70A-9a-332, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             108          70A-9a-333, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             109          70A-9a-334, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             110          70A-9a-335, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             111          70A-9a-336, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             112          70A-9a-337, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             113          70A-9a-338, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             114          70A-9a-339, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             115          70A-9a-340, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             116          70A-9a-341, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             117          70A-9a-342, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             118          70A-9a-401, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             119          70A-9a-402, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             120          70A-9a-403, Utah Code Annotated 1953


             121          70A-9a-404, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             122          70A-9a-405, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             123          70A-9a-406, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             124          70A-9a-407, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             125          70A-9a-408, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             126          70A-9a-409, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             127          70A-9a-501, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             128          70A-9a-502, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             129          70A-9a-503, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             130          70A-9a-504, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             131          70A-9a-505, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             132          70A-9a-506, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             133          70A-9a-507, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             134          70A-9a-508, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             135          70A-9a-509, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             136          70A-9a-510, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             137          70A-9a-511, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             138          70A-9a-512, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             139          70A-9a-513, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             140          70A-9a-514, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             141          70A-9a-515, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             142          70A-9a-516, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             143          70A-9a-517, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             144          70A-9a-518, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             145          70A-9a-519, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             146          70A-9a-520, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             147          70A-9a-521, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             148          70A-9a-522, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             149          70A-9a-523, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             150          70A-9a-524, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             151          70A-9a-525, Utah Code Annotated 1953


             152          70A-9a-526, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             153          70A-9a-527, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             154          70A-9a-601, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             155          70A-9a-602, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             156          70A-9a-603, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             157          70A-9a-604, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             158          70A-9a-605, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             159          70A-9a-606, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             160          70A-9a-607, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             161          70A-9a-608, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             162          70A-9a-609, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             163          70A-9a-610, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             164          70A-9a-611, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             165          70A-9a-612, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             166          70A-9a-613, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             167          70A-9a-614, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             168          70A-9a-615, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             169          70A-9a-616, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             170          70A-9a-617, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             171          70A-9a-618, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             172          70A-9a-619, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             173          70A-9a-620, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             174          70A-9a-621, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             175          70A-9a-622, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             176          70A-9a-623, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             177          70A-9a-624, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             178          70A-9a-625, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             179          70A-9a-626, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             180          70A-9a-627, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             181          70A-9a-628, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             182          70A-9a-701, Utah Code Annotated 1953


             183          70A-9a-702, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             184          70A-9a-703, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             185          70A-9a-704, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             186          70A-9a-705, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             187          70A-9a-706, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             188          70A-9a-707, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             189          70A-9a-708, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             190          70A-9a-709, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             191      REPEALS AND REENACTS:
             192          70A-5-118, as enacted by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             193          70A-5-119, as enacted by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             194      REPEALS:
             195          70A-9-101, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             196          70A-9-102, as last amended by Chapter 172, Laws of Utah 1996
             197          70A-9-103, as last amended by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             198          70A-9-104, as last amended by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             199          70A-9-105, as last amended by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             200          70A-9-106, as last amended by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             201          70A-9-107, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             202          70A-9-108, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             203          70A-9-109, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             204          70A-9-110, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             205          70A-9-112, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             206          70A-9-113, as last amended by Chapter 5, Laws of Utah 1991
             207          70A-9-114, as enacted by Chapter 272, Laws of Utah 1977
             208          70A-9-115, as enacted by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             209          70A-9-116, as enacted by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             210          70A-9-201, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             211          70A-9-202, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             212          70A-9-203, as last amended by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             213          70A-9-204, as enacted by Chapter 272, Laws of Utah 1977


             214          70A-9-205, as last amended by Chapter 272, Laws of Utah 1977
             215          70A-9-206, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             216          70A-9-207, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             217          70A-9-208, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             218          70A-9-301, as last amended by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             219          70A-9-302, as last amended by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             220          70A-9-303, as last amended by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             221          70A-9-304, as last amended by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             222          70A-9-305, as last amended by Chapter 241, Laws of Utah 1997
             223          70A-9-306, as last amended by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             224          70A-9-307, as last amended by Chapter 114, Laws of Utah 1986
             225          70A-9-308, as enacted by Chapter 272, Laws of Utah 1977
             226          70A-9-309, as last amended by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             227          70A-9-310, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             228          70A-9-311, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             229          70A-9-312, as last amended by Chapter 204, Laws of Utah 1996
             230          70A-9-313, as last amended by Chapter 5, Laws of Utah 1991
             231          70A-9-314, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             232          70A-9-315, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             233          70A-9-316, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             234          70A-9-317, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             235          70A-9-318, as last amended by Chapter 197, Laws of Utah 1990
             236          70A-9-400, as last amended by Chapter 92, Laws of Utah 1987
             237          70A-9-401, as last amended by Chapter 66, Laws of Utah 1984
             238          70A-9-402, as last amended by Chapter 232, Laws of Utah 1999
             239          70A-9-403, as last amended by Chapter 172, Laws of Utah 1996
             240          70A-9-404, as last amended by Chapter 147, Laws of Utah 1994
             241          70A-9-405, as last amended by Chapter 313, Laws of Utah 1994
             242          70A-9-406, as last amended by Chapter 313, Laws of Utah 1994
             243          70A-9-407, as last amended by Chapter 313, Laws of Utah 1994
             244          70A-9-408, as last amended by Chapter 272, Laws of Utah 1977


             245          70A-9-409, as last amended by Chapter 178, Laws of Utah 1985
             246          70A-9-501, as last amended by Chapter 272, Laws of Utah 1977
             247          70A-9-502, as last amended by Chapter 272, Laws of Utah 1977
             248          70A-9-503, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             249          70A-9-504, as last amended by Chapter 272, Laws of Utah 1977
             250          70A-9-505, as last amended by Chapter 272, Laws of Utah 1977
             251          70A-9-506, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             252          70A-9-507, as enacted by Chapter 154, Laws of Utah 1965
             253      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
             254          Section 1. Section 15-4-6.5 is amended to read:
             255           15-4-6.5. Divorce or separate maintenance of co-obligors.
             256          (1) On the entering of a decree of divorce or separate maintenance of joint debtors in
             257      contract, the claim of a creditor remains unchanged unless otherwise provided by the contract or
             258      until a new contract is entered into between the creditor and the debtors individually.
             259          (2) In addition to [his] the creditor's duties as a secured party under [Section 70A-9-112 ]
             260      Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured Transactions, and [his] the creditor's
             261      duties as a trustee or beneficiary of a trust deed under Title 57, Chapter 1, Conveyances, a creditor,
             262      who has been notified by service of a copy of a court order under [Sections] Section 30-3-5 or
             263      30-4-3 that the debtors are divorced or living separately under an order for separate maintenance,
             264      and who has been expressly advised of the separate, current addresses of the debtors either by the
             265      court order or by other written notice, shall provide to the debtors individually all statements,
             266      notices, and other similar correspondence required by law or by the contract.
             267          (3) (a) Except as provided in Subsection (3)(b), a creditor may continue to make negative
             268      credit reports of joint debtors under Section 70C-7-107 and may report the repayment practices or
             269      credit history of joint debtors under Title 7, Chapter 14, Credit Information Exchange.
             270          (b) With respect to a debtor who is not ordered by the court under Sections 30-3-5 or
             271      30-4-3 to make payments on a joint obligation, no negative credit report under Section 70C-7-107 ,
             272      and no report of the debtor's repayment practices or credit history under Title 7, Chapter 14, Credit
             273      Information Exchange, may be made regarding the joint obligation after the creditor is served
             274      notice of the court's order as required under Subsection (2), unless the creditor has made a demand
             275      on the debtor for payment because of the failure to make payments by the other debtor, who is


             276      ordered by the court to make the payments.
             277          Section 2. Section 25-6-9 is amended to read:
             278           25-6-9. Good faith transfer.
             279          (1) A transfer or obligation is not voidable under Subsection 25-6-5 (1)(a) against a person
             280      who took in good faith and for a reasonably equivalent value or against any subsequent transferee
             281      or obligee.
             282          (2) Except as otherwise provided in this section, to the extent a transfer is voidable in an
             283      action by a creditor under Subsection 25-6-8 (1)(a), the creditor may recover judgment for the
             284      value of the asset transferred, as adjusted under Subsection (3), or the amount necessary to satisfy
             285      the creditor's claim, whichever is less. The judgment may be entered against:
             286          (a) the first transferee of the asset or the person for whose benefit the transfer was made;
             287      or
             288          (b) any subsequent transferee other than a good faith transferee who took for value or from
             289      any subsequent transferee.
             290          (3) If the judgment under Subsection (2) is based upon the value of the asset transferred,
             291      the judgment must be for an amount equal to the value of the asset at the time of the transfer,
             292      subject to an adjustment as equities may require.
             293          (4) Notwithstanding voidability of a transfer or an obligation under this chapter, a
             294      good-faith transferee or obligee is entitled, to the extent of the value given the debtor for the
             295      transfer or obligation, to:
             296          (a) a lien on or a right to retain any interest in the asset transferred;
             297          (b) enforcement of any obligation incurred; or
             298          (c) a reduction in the amount of the liability on the judgment.
             299          (5) A transfer is not voidable under Subsection 25-6-5 (1)(b) or Section 25-6-6 if the
             300      transfer results from:
             301          (a) termination of a lease upon default by the debtor when the termination is pursuant to
             302      the lease and applicable law; or
             303          (b) enforcement of a security interest in compliance with Title 70A, Chapter 9a, [the]
             304      Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured Transactions.
             305          (6) A transfer is not voidable under Subsection 25-6-6 (2):
             306          (a) to the extent the insider gave new value to or for the benefit of the debtor after the


             307      transfer was made unless the new value was secured by a valid lien;
             308          (b) if made in the ordinary course of business or financial affairs of the debtor and the
             309      insider; or
             310          (c) if made pursuant to a good-faith effort to rehabilitate the debtor and the transfer secured
             311      present value given for that purpose as well as an antecedent debt of the debtor.
             312          Section 3. Section 31A-22-419 is amended to read:
             313           31A-22-419. Insurer's purchase of and loans on policies.
             314          Any life insurer may purchase for its own benefit any policy of insurance or other
             315      obligation of the company and any claim of its policyholders. The insurer may also lend to the
             316      holders of policies of the company a sum which does not exceed the sum of the cash value of the
             317      policies and the surplus or dividend additions to the policies. The policies and all additions to
             318      them shall be security for payment of the loan. An insurer's security interest in a policy under this
             319      section need not be filed under Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured
             320      Transactions, to be perfected.
             321          Section 4. Section 38-7-2.5 is amended to read:
             322           38-7-2.5. Failure to notify -- Effect -- Penalty.
             323          (1) (a) A person who fails to meet the notice requirements of Subsections 38-7-2 (1) and
             324      (2) is precluded from receiving an award of costs and attorneys' fees from the person against whom
             325      a notice of lien has been filed in an action to enforce the lien if costs and attorneys' fees are
             326      authorized by contract or statute.
             327          (b) Subsection (1)(a) does not create a right to costs and attorneys' fees.
             328          (2) In addition to the penalties provided in Subsection (1)(a), a lien claimant who, within
             329      20 days from the date of receiving notice of noncompliance with the notice requirements of
             330      Subsection 38-7-2 (1) or (2), willfully refuses to release the notice of lien or record the lien in
             331      compliance with Section 38-7-2 is liable to the person against whom the notice of lien was filed
             332      for $1,000 or for treble damages, whichever is greater.
             333          (3) Failure to meet the notice requirements of Subsections 38-7-2 (1) and (2) does not:
             334          (a) invalidate any lien arising at common law or in equity or by any statute of this state;
             335      or
             336          (b) affect the rules of priority provided in Title 70A, Chapter 9a, [Part 3] Uniform
             337      Commercial Code -- Secured Transactions.


             338          Section 5. Section 38-8-2 is amended to read:
             339           38-8-2. Lien against stored property -- Attachment and duration -- Search for
             340      financing statement prerequisite to enforcement of lien.
             341          (1) Where a rental agreement, as defined in Subsection 38-8-1 (6), is entered into between
             342      the owner and the occupant, the owner of the self-service storage facility and [his] the owner's
             343      heirs, executors, administrators, successors, and assigns have a lien upon all personal property
             344      located at the self-service storage facility for rent, labor, or other charges, present or future, in
             345      relation to the personal property and for expenses necessary for its preservation or expenses
             346      reasonably incurred in its sale or other disposition under this chapter.
             347          (2) The lien described in Subsection (1) attaches as of the date the personal property is
             348      brought to the self-service storage facility and continues so long as the owner retains possession
             349      and until any default is corrected, or a sale pursuant to a default is conducted, or the property is
             350      otherwise disposed of to satisfy the lien.
             351          (3) (a) Before taking enforcement action under Section 38-8-3 , the owner shall determine
             352      if a financing statement filed in accordance with [Section 70A-9-401 , et seq.] Title 70A, Chapter
             353      9a, Part 5, Filing, has been filed with the Division of Corporations and Commercial Code
             354      concerning the property to be sold or otherwise disposed of.
             355          (b) A security interest evidenced by a financing statement filed in accordance with Title
             356      70A, Chapter 9a, Part 5, Filing, has priority over the lien provided by this section.
             357          Section 6. Section 38-12-102 is amended to read:
             358           38-12-102. Notice requirements for lien filings -- Exceptions.
             359          (1) No later than 30 days after the day on which a lien claimant or the lien claimant's
             360      authorized agent files for recordation a notice of lien meeting the requirements of Subsection (2)
             361      with a county recorder, county clerk, or clerk of the court, a lien claimant or the lien claimant's
             362      agent shall send by certified mail a written copy of the notice of lien to the last-known address of
             363      the person against whom the notice of lien is filed.
             364          (2) The notice of lien shall contain the following information:
             365          (a) the name and address of the person against whom the lien is filed;
             366          (b) (i) a statement that certain property owned by the person against whom the lien is filed
             367      is subject to a lien;
             368          (ii) the amount of the judgment, settlement, or compromise if the lien is based on a charge


             369      against or interest in a judgment, settlement, or compromise; or
             370          (iii) the amount of state taxes owed;
             371          (c) the article number contained on the certified mail receipt;
             372          (d) the date the notice of lien was filed; and
             373          (e) the name and address of the lien claimant.
             374          (3) The notice requirements of Subsections (1) and (2) do not apply to a:
             375          (a) mechanics' lien as provided in Title 38, Chapter 1, Mechanics' Liens;
             376          (b) lessors' lien as provided in Title 38, Chapter 3, Lessors' Liens;
             377          (c) federal tax lien as provided in Title 38, Chapter 6, Federal Tax Liens;
             378          (d) hospital lien as provided in Title 38, Chapter 7, Hospital Lien Law;
             379          (e) self-service storage facilities lien as provided in Title 38, Chapter 8, Self-Service
             380      Storage Facilities;
             381          (f) oil, gas, or mining lien as provided in Title 38, Chapter 10, Oil, Gas, and Mining Liens;
             382          (g) claim against the Residence Lien Recovery Fund as provided in Title 38, Chapter 11,
             383      Residence Lien Restriction and Lien Recovery Fund Act;
             384          (h) trust deed;
             385          (i) mortgage;
             386          (j) interests subject to a security agreement as defined in [Subsection 70A-9-105 (l)]
             387      Section 70A-9a-102 ; or
             388          (k) other liens subject to the same or stricter notice requirements than those imposed by
             389      Subsections (1) and (2).
             390          Section 7. Section 38-12-103 is amended to read:
             391           38-12-103. Failure to notify -- Effect -- Penalty.
             392          (1) (a) A person who fails to meet the notice requirements of Subsections 38-12-102 (1)
             393      and (2) is precluded from receiving an award of costs and attorneys' fees from the person against
             394      whom a notice of lien has been filed in an action to enforce the lien if costs and attorneys' fees are
             395      authorized by contract or statute.
             396          (b) Subsection (1)(a) does not create a right to costs and attorneys' fees.
             397          (2) In addition to the penalties provided in Subsection (1)(a), a lien claimant who, within
             398      20 days from the date of receiving notice of noncompliance with the notice requirements of
             399      Subsection 38-12-102 (1) or (2), willfully refuses to release the notice of lien or record the lien in


             400      compliance with Section 38-12-102 is liable to the person against whom the notice of lien was
             401      filed for $1,000 or for treble damages, whichever is greater.
             402          (3) Failure to meet the notice requirements of Subsections 38-12-102 (1) and (2) does not:
             403          (a) invalidate any lien arising at common law or in equity or by any statute of this state;
             404      or
             405          (b) affect the rules of priority provided in Title 70A, Chapter 9a, [Part 3] Uniform
             406      Commercial Code -- Secured Transactions.
             407          Section 8. Section 41-1a-223 is amended to read:
             408           41-1a-223. Registration without Utah title.
             409          (1) (a) If the owner of a vehicle operating interstate and registered in another state desires
             410      to retain registration of the vehicle in the other state, the applicant need not surrender but shall
             411      submit for inspection evidences of out-of-state registration.
             412          (b) The division upon a proper showing shall register the vehicle in this state.
             413          (2) (a) If a person is relocating from another jurisdiction and establishing residence in this
             414      state, whether temporary or permanent, and that person has a vehicle registered and titled in
             415      another jurisdiction and is not able to surrender title to the vehicle being registered in Utah because
             416      title is physically held by a lienholder, the division may register the vehicle without issuing a Utah
             417      title.
             418          (b) Notwithstanding [the provisions of] Section [ 70A-9-103 ] 70A-9a-316 , the registration
             419      of a vehicle under this section does not alter or affect the rights or security interest of any
             420      lienholder in another jurisdiction.
             421          Section 9. Section 41-1a-601 is amended to read:
             422           41-1a-601. Lien validity -- Security interest.
             423          (1) Except as provided under Subsection (2), a lien upon a vehicle, vessel, or outboard
             424      motor, except a lien dependent upon possession, is not valid against the creditors of an owner
             425      acquiring a lien by levy or attachment, or subsequent purchasers, or encumbrancers without notice
             426      until Sections 41-1a-602 through 41-1a-606 have been complied with.
             427          (2) Security interests in inventory consisting in part of vehicles subject to registration
             428      under this chapter, that are held for sale by a person in the business of selling goods of that kind,
             429      shall be perfected under Section [ 70A-9-302 ] 70A-9a-310 , except that buyers in the ordinary
             430      course of business, as defined in Section 70A-1-201 , take free of the security interests as provided


             431      in Section [ 70A-9-307 ] 70A-9a-320 .
             432          Section 10. Section 41-1a-606 is amended to read:
             433           41-1a-606. Method of giving notice -- Exceptions.
             434          The method provided in Sections 41-1a-602 through 41-1a-605 , for giving constructive
             435      notice of a lien or encumbrance upon a registered vehicle is exclusive except for liens dependent
             436      upon possession and any lien or encumbrance filed as provided under this chapter, which are
             437      exempt from the provisions of Section [ 70A-9-302 ] 70A-9a-311 , and other provisions of law that
             438      otherwise require or relate to the recording or filing of instruments creating or evidencing title
             439      retention or other liens or encumbrances upon vehicles of a type subject to registration under this
             440      chapter.
             441          Section 11. Section 57-3-102 is amended to read:
             442           57-3-102. Record imparts notice -- Change in interest rate -- Validity of document
             443      -- Notice of unnamed interests -- Conveyance by grantee.
             444          (1) Each document executed, acknowledged, and certified, in the manner prescribed by
             445      this title, each original document or certified copy of a document complying with Section 57-4a-3 ,
             446      whether or not acknowledged, each copy of a notice of location complying with Section 40-1-4 ,
             447      and each financing statement complying with Section [ 70A-9-402 ] 70A-9a-502 , whether or not
             448      acknowledged shall, from the time of recording with the appropriate county recorder, impart notice
             449      to all persons of their contents.
             450          (2) If a recorded document was given as security, a change in the interest rate in
             451      accordance with the terms of an agreement pertaining to the underlying secured obligation does
             452      not affect the notice or alter the priority of the document provided under Subsection (1).
             453          (3) This section does not affect the validity of a document with respect to the parties to the
             454      document and all other persons who have notice of the document.
             455          (4) The fact that a recorded document recites only a nominal consideration, names the
             456      grantee as trustee, or otherwise purports to be in trust without naming beneficiaries or stating the
             457      terms of the trust does not charge any third person with notice of any interest of the grantor or of
             458      the interest of any other person not named in the document.
             459          (5) The grantee in a recorded document may convey the interest granted to him free and
             460      clear of all claims not disclosed in the document in which he appears as grantee or in any other
             461      document recorded in accordance with this title that sets forth the names of the beneficiaries,


             462      specifies the interest claimed, and describes the real property subject to the interest.
             463          Section 12. Section 57-3-108 is enacted to read:
             464          57-3-108. Financing statements not subject to title.
             465          This title does not apply to a financing statement filed or recorded in a filing office
             466      described in Subsection 70A-9a-501 (1)(a) that:
             467          (1) covers as-extracted collateral or timber to be cut; or
             468          (2) (a) is filed as a fixture filing; and
             469          (b) covers goods that are or are to become fixtures.
             470          Section 13. Section 57-16-9 is amended to read:
             471           57-16-9. Lienholder's liability for rent and fees.
             472          Notwithstanding [the provisions of] Section 38-3-2 and Section [ 70A-9-317 ] 70A-9a-402 ,
             473      the lienholder of record of a mobile home is primarily liable to the mobile home park owner or
             474      operator for rent and service charges if a mobile home is not removed within [10] ten days after
             475      receipt of written notice that a mobile home has been abandoned or that a writ of restitution has
             476      been issued. The lienholder, however, is only liable for rent that accrues after receipt of such
             477      notice.
             478          Section 14. Section 58-37-13 is amended to read:
             479           58-37-13. Property subject to forfeiture -- Seizure -- Procedure.
             480          (1) As used in this section:
             481          (a) "Complaint" means a verified civil in rem complaint seeking forfeiture or any criminal
             482      information or indictment which contains or is amended to include a demand for forfeiture of a
             483      defendant's in personam interest in any property which is subject to forfeiture.
             484          (b) "Drug distributing paraphernalia" means any property used or designed to be used in
             485      the illegal transportation, storage, shipping, or circulation of a controlled substance. Property is
             486      considered "designed to be used" for one or more of the above-listed purposes if the property has
             487      been altered or modified to include a feature or device which would actually promote or conceal
             488      a violation of this chapter.
             489          (c) "Drug manufacturing equipment or supplies" includes any illegally possessed
             490      controlled substance precursor, or any chemical, laboratory equipment, or laboratory supplies
             491      possessed with intent to engage in clandestine laboratory operation as defined in Section 58-37d-3 .
             492          (d) "Interest holder" means a secured party as defined in [Section 70A-9-105 (1)(m)]


             493      Section 70A-9a-102 , a mortgagee, lien creditor, or the beneficiary of a security interest or
             494      encumbrance pertaining to an interest in property, whose interest would be perfected against a
             495      good faith purchaser for value. A person who holds property for the benefit of or as an agent or
             496      nominee for another, or who is not in substantial compliance with any statute requiring an interest
             497      in property to be recorded or reflected in public records in order to perfect the interest against a
             498      good faith purchaser for value, is not an interest holder.
             499          (e) "Proceeds" means property acquired directly or indirectly from, produced through,
             500      realized through, or caused by an act or omission and includes any property of any kind without
             501      reduction for expenses incurred in the acquisition, maintenance, or production of that property, or
             502      any other purpose.
             503          (f) "Resolution of criminal charges" occurs at the time a claimant who is also charged with
             504      violations under Title 58, Chapters 37, 37a, 37b, 37c, or 37d enters a plea, upon return of a jury
             505      verdict or court ruling in a criminal trial, or upon dismissal of the criminal charge.
             506          (g) "Violation of this chapter" means any conduct prohibited by Title 58, Chapters 37, 37a,
             507      37b, 37c, or 37d or any conduct occurring outside the state which would be a violation of the laws
             508      of the place where the conduct occurred and which would be a violation of Title 58, Chapters 37,
             509      37a, 37b, 37c, or 37d if the conduct had occurred in this state.
             510          (2) The following are subject to forfeiture and no property right exists in them:
             511          (a) all controlled substances which have been manufactured, distributed, dispensed, or
             512      acquired in violation of this chapter;
             513          (b) all raw materials, products, and equipment of any kind used, or intended for use, in
             514      manufacturing, compounding, processing, delivering, importing, or exporting any controlled
             515      substance in violation of this chapter;
             516          (c) all property used or intended for use as a container for property described in
             517      Subsections (2)(a) and (2)(b);
             518          (d) all hypodermic needles, syringes, and other paraphernalia, not including capsules used
             519      with health food supplements and herbs, used or intended for use to administer controlled
             520      substances in violation of this chapter;
             521          (e) all conveyances including aircraft, vehicles, or vessels used or intended for use, to
             522      transport, or in any manner facilitate the transportation, sale, receipt, simple possession, or
             523      concealment of property described in Subsections (2)(a) and (2)(b), except that:


             524          (i) a conveyance used by any person as a common carrier in the transaction of business as
             525      a common carrier may not be forfeited under this section unless the owner or other person in
             526      charge of the conveyance was a consenting party or knew or had reason to know of the violation
             527      of this chapter;
             528          (ii) a conveyance may not be forfeited under this section by reason of any act or omission
             529      committed or omitted without the owner's knowledge or consent; and
             530          (iii) any forfeiture of a conveyance is subject to the claim of an interest holder who did not
             531      know or have reason to know after the exercise of reasonable diligence that a violation would or
             532      did take place in the use of the conveyance;
             533          (f) all books, records, and research, including formulas, microfilm, tapes, and data used
             534      or intended for use in violation of this chapter;
             535          (g) everything of value furnished or intended to be furnished in exchange for a controlled
             536      substance in violation of this chapter, and all moneys, negotiable instruments, and securities used
             537      or intended to be used to facilitate any violation of this chapter. An interest in property may not
             538      be forfeited under this subsection unless it is proven by a preponderance of the evidence that the
             539      interest holder knew, had reason to know of, or consented to the conduct which made the property
             540      subject to forfeiture. The burden of presenting this evidence shall be upon the state;
             541          (h) all imitation controlled substances as defined in Section 58-37b-2 , Imitation Controlled
             542      Substances Act;
             543          (i) all warehousing, housing, and storage facilities, or interest in real property of any kind
             544      used, or intended for use, in producing, cultivating, warehousing, storing, protecting, or
             545      manufacturing any controlled substances in violation of this chapter, except that:
             546          (i) any forfeiture of a housing, warehousing, or storage facility or interest in real property
             547      is subject to the claim of an interest holder who did not know or have reason to know after the
             548      exercise of reasonable diligence that a violation would take place on the property;
             549          (ii) an interest in property may not be forfeited under this subsection if the interest holder
             550      did not know or have reason to know of the conduct which made the property subject to forfeiture,
             551      or did not willingly consent to the conduct; and
             552          (iii) unless the premises are used in producing, cultivating, or manufacturing controlled
             553      substances, a housing, warehousing, or storage facility or interest in real property may not be
             554      forfeited under this subsection unless cumulative sales of controlled substances on the property


             555      within a two-month period total or exceed $1,000, or the street value of any controlled substances
             556      found on the premises at any given time totals or exceeds $1,000. A narcotics officer experienced
             557      in controlled substances law enforcement may testify to establish the street value of the controlled
             558      substances for purposes of this subsection;
             559          (j) any firearm, weapon, or ammunition carried or used during or in relation to a violation
             560      of this chapter or any firearm, weapon, or ammunition kept or located within the proximity of
             561      controlled substances or other property subject to forfeiture under this section; and
             562          (k) all proceeds traceable to any violation of this chapter. There is a rebuttable
             563      presumption that all money, coins, and currency found in proximity to forfeitable controlled
             564      substances, drug manufacturing equipment or supplies, drug distributing paraphernalia, or
             565      forfeitable records of importation, manufacture, or distribution of controlled substances are
             566      proceeds traceable to a violation of this chapter. The burden of proof is upon the claimant of the
             567      property to rebut this presumption.
             568          (3) (a) Property subject to forfeiture under this chapter may be seized by any peace officer
             569      of this state upon process issued by any court having jurisdiction over the property. However,
             570      seizure without process may be made when:
             571          (i) the seizure is incident to an arrest or search under a search warrant or an inspection
             572      under an administrative inspection warrant;
             573          (ii) the property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the
             574      state in a criminal injunction or forfeiture proceeding under this chapter;
             575          (iii) the peace officer has probable cause to believe that the property is directly or indirectly
             576      dangerous to health or safety; or
             577          (iv) the peace officer has probable cause to believe that the property has been used or
             578      intended to be used in violation of this chapter and has probable cause to believe the property will
             579      be damaged, intentionally diminished in value, destroyed, concealed, or removed from the state.
             580          (b) Upon the filing of a complaint, the court shall immediately issue to the seizing agency
             581      a warrant for seizure of any property subject to forfeiture which had been seized without a warrant
             582      in a manner described in this Subsection (3).
             583          (4) In the event of seizure under Subsection (3), forfeiture proceedings under Subsection
             584      (9) shall be instituted within 90 days of the seizure. The time period may by extended by the court
             585      having jurisdiction over the property upon notice to all claimants and interest holders and for good


             586      cause shown.
             587          (5) Property taken or detained under this section is not repleviable but is in custody of the
             588      law enforcement agency making the seizure, subject only to the orders and decrees of the court or
             589      the official having jurisdiction. When property is seized under this chapter, the appropriate person
             590      or agency may:
             591          (a) place the property under seal;
             592          (b) remove the property to a place designated by it or the warrant under which it was
             593      seized; or
             594          (c) take custody of the property and remove it to an appropriate location for disposition
             595      in accordance with law.
             596          (6) All substances listed in Schedule I that are possessed, transferred, distributed, or
             597      offered for distribution in violation of this chapter are contraband and no property right shall exist
             598      in them. All substances listed in Schedule I which are seized or come into the possession of the
             599      state may be retained for any evidentiary or investigative purpose, including sampling or other
             600      preservation prior to disposal or destruction by the state.
             601          (7) All marijuana or any species of plants from which controlled substances in Schedules
             602      I and II are derived which have been planted or cultivated in violation of this chapter, or of which
             603      the owners or cultivators are unknown, or are wild growths, may be seized and retained for any
             604      evidentiary or investigative purpose, including sampling or other preservation prior to disposal or
             605      destruction by the state. Failure, upon demand by the department or its authorized agent, of any
             606      person in occupancy or in control of land or premises upon which species of plants are growing
             607      or being stored, to produce an appropriate license or proof that he is the holder of a license, is
             608      authority for the seizure and forfeiture of the plants.
             609          (8) When any property is forfeited under this chapter by a finding of the court that no
             610      person is entitled to recover the property, it shall be deposited in the custody of the Division of
             611      Finance. Disposition of all property is as follows:
             612          (a) The state may include in its complaint seeking forfeiture, a request that the seizing
             613      agency be awarded the property. Upon a finding that the seizing agency is able to use the forfeited
             614      property in the enforcement of controlled substances laws, the court having jurisdiction over the
             615      case shall award the property to the seizing agency. Each agency shall use the forfeited property
             616      for controlled substance law enforcement purposes only. Forfeited property or proceeds from the


             617      sale of forfeited property may not be used to pay any cash incentive, award, or bonus to any peace
             618      officer or individual acting as an agent for the agency, nor may it be used to supplant any ordinary
             619      operating expense of the agency. The seizing agency shall pay to the prosecuting agency the legal
             620      costs incurred in filing and pursuing the forfeiture action. Property forfeited under this section may
             621      not be applied by the court to costs or fines assessed against any defendant in the case.
             622          (b) The seizing agency, or if it makes no application, any state agency, bureau, county, or
             623      municipality, which demonstrates a need for specific property or classes of property subject to
             624      forfeiture shall be given the property for use in enforcement of controlled substances laws upon
             625      the payment of costs to the county attorney or, if within a prosecution district, the district attorney
             626      for legal costs for filing and pursuing the forfeiture and upon application for the property to the
             627      director of the Division of Finance. The application shall clearly set forth the need for the property
             628      and the use to which the property will be put.
             629          (c) The director of the Division of Finance shall review all applications for property
             630      submitted under Subsection (8)(b) and, if the seizing agency makes no application, make a
             631      determination based on necessity and advisability as to final disposition and shall notify the
             632      designated applicant or seizing agency, where no application is made, who may obtain the property
             633      upon payment of all costs to the appropriate department. The Division of Finance shall in turn
             634      reimburse the prosecuting agency or agencies for costs of filing and pursuing the forfeiture action,
             635      not to exceed the amount of the net proceeds received for the sale of the property. Any proceeds
             636      remaining after payment shall be returned to the seizing agency or agencies.
             637          (d) If no disposition is made upon an application under Subsection (8)(a) or (b), the
             638      director of the Division of Finance shall dispose of the property by public bidding or as considered
             639      appropriate, by destruction. Proof of destruction shall be upon oath of two officers or employees
             640      of the department having charge of the property, and verified by the director of the department or
             641      his designated agent.
             642          (9) Forfeiture proceedings shall be commenced as follows:
             643          (a) For actions brought under Subsections (2)(a) through (2)(j), a complaint shall be
             644      prepared by the county attorney, or if within a prosecution district, the district attorney, or the
             645      attorney general, and filed in a court of record where the property was seized or is to be seized. In
             646      cases in which the claimant of the property is also charged as a criminal defendant, the complaint
             647      shall be filed in the county where the criminal charges arose, regardless of the location of the


             648      property. The complaint shall include:
             649          (i) a description of the property which is subject to forfeiture;
             650          (ii) the date and place of seizure, if known; and
             651          (iii) the allegations of conduct which gives rise to forfeiture.
             652          (b) In cases where a claimant is also charged as a criminal defendant, the forfeiture shall
             653      proceed as part of the criminal prosecution as an in personam action against the defendant's
             654      interest in the property subject to forfeiture. A defendant need not file a written answer to the
             655      complaint, but may acknowledge or deny interest in the property at the time of first appearance on
             656      the criminal charges. If a criminal information or indictment is amended to include a demand for
             657      forfeiture, the defendant may respond to the demand at the time of the amendment.
             658          (i) Unless motion for disposition is made by the defendant, the determination of forfeiture
             659      shall be stayed until resolution of the criminal charges. Hearing on the forfeiture shall be before
             660      the court without a jury. The court may consider any evidence presented in the criminal case, and
             661      receive any other evidence offered by the state or the defendant. The court shall determine by a
             662      preponderance of the evidence the issues in the case and order forfeiture or release of the property
             663      as it determines.
             664          (ii) A defendant may move the court to transfer the forfeiture action, to stay all action,
             665      including discovery, in the forfeiture, or for hearing on the forfeiture any time prior to trial of the
             666      criminal charges. Either party may move the court to enter a finding of forfeiture as to defendant's
             667      interest in part or all of the property, either by default or by stipulation. Upon entry of a finding,
             668      the court shall stay the entry of judgment until resolution of the criminal charges. Any finding of
             669      forfeiture entered by the court prior to resolution of the criminal charges may not constitute a
             670      separate judgment, and any motion for disposition, stay, severance, or transfer of the forfeiture
             671      action may not create a separate proceeding. Upon the granting of a motion by the defendant for
             672      disposition, stay, severance, or transfer of the forfeiture action, the defendant shall be considered
             673      to have waived any claim that the defendant has been twice put in jeopardy for the same offense.
             674          (iii) Any other person claiming an interest in property subject to forfeiture under this
             675      subsection may not intervene in a trial or appeal of a complaint filed under this subsection.
             676      Following the entry of an in personam forfeiture order, or upon the filing of a petition for release
             677      under Subsection (9)(e), the county attorney, district attorney, or attorney general may proceed with
             678      a separate in rem action to resolve any other claims upon the property subject to forfeiture.


             679          (c) A complaint seeking forfeiture under Subsection (2)(k) shall be prepared by the county
             680      attorney, or if within a prosecution district, the district attorney, or by the attorney general, either
             681      in personam as part of a criminal prosecution, or in a separate civil in rem action against the
             682      property alleged to be proceeds, and filed in the county where the property is seized or
             683      encumbered, if the proceeds are located outside the state. A finding that property is the proceeds
             684      of a violation of this chapter does not require proof that the property is the proceeds of any
             685      particular exchange or transaction. Proof that property is proceeds may be shown by evidence
             686      which establishes all of the following by a preponderance of the evidence:
             687          (i) that the person has engaged in conduct in violation of this chapter;
             688          (ii) that the property was acquired by the person during that period when the conduct in
             689      violation of this chapter occurred or within a reasonable time after that period; and
             690          (iii) that there was no likely source for the property other than conduct in violation of the
             691      chapter.
             692          (d) Notice of the seizure and intended forfeiture shall be filed with the clerk of the court,
             693      and served upon all persons known to the county attorney or district attorney to have a claim in the
             694      property by:
             695          (i) personal service upon a claimant who is charged in a criminal information or
             696      indictment; and
             697          (ii) certified mail to each claimant whose name and address is known or to each owner
             698      whose right, title, or interest is of record in the Division of Motor Vehicles to the address given
             699      upon the records of the division, which service is considered complete even though the mail is
             700      refused or cannot be forwarded. The county attorney, district attorney, or attorney general shall
             701      make one publication in a newspaper of general circulation in the county where the seizure was
             702      made for all other claimants whose addresses are unknown, but who are believed to have an
             703      interest in the property.
             704          (e) Except under Subsection (9)(a) in personam actions, any claimant or interest holder
             705      shall file with the court a verified answer to the complaint within 20 days after service. When
             706      property is seized under this chapter, any interest holder or claimant of the property, prior to being
             707      served with a complaint under this section, may file a petition in the court having jurisdiction for
             708      release of his interest in the property. The petition shall specify the claimant's interest in the
             709      property and his right to have it released. A copy shall be served upon the county attorney or, if


             710      within a prosecution district, the district attorney in the county of the seizure, who shall answer the
             711      petition within 20 days. A petitioner need not answer a complaint of forfeiture.
             712          (f) For civil actions in rem, after 20 days following service of a complaint or petition for
             713      release, the court shall examine the record and if no answer is on file, the court shall allow the
             714      complainant or petitioner an opportunity to present evidence in support of his claim and order
             715      forfeiture or release of the property as the court determines. If the county attorney or district
             716      attorney has not filed an answer to a petition for release and the court determines from the evidence
             717      that the petitioner is not entitled to recovery of the property, it shall enter an order directing the
             718      county attorney or district attorney to answer the petition within ten days. If no answer is filed
             719      within that period, the court shall order the release of the property to the petitioner entitled to
             720      receive it.
             721          (g) When an answer to a complaint or petition appears of record at the end of 20 days, the
             722      court shall set the matter for hearing. At this hearing all interested parties may present evidence
             723      of their rights of release of the property following the state's evidence for forfeiture. The court
             724      shall determine by a preponderance of the evidence the issues in the case and order forfeiture or
             725      release of the property as it determines.
             726          (h) When the court determines that claimants have no right in the property in whole or in
             727      part, it shall declare the property to be forfeited.
             728          (i) When the court determines that property, in whole or in part, is not subject to forfeiture,
             729      it shall order release of the property to the proper claimant. If the court determines that the
             730      property is subject to forfeiture and release in part, it shall order partial release and partial
             731      forfeiture. When the property cannot be divided for partial forfeiture and release, the court shall
             732      order it sold and the proceeds distributed:
             733          (i) first, proportionally among the legitimate claimants;
             734          (ii) second, to defray the costs of the action, including seizure, storage of the property,
             735      legal costs of filing and pursuing the forfeiture, and costs of sale; and
             736          (iii) third, to the Division of Finance for the General Fund.
             737          (j) In a proceeding under this section where forfeiture is declared, in whole or in part, the
             738      court shall assess all costs of the forfeiture proceeding, including seizure and storage of the
             739      property, against the individual or individuals whose conduct was the basis of the forfeiture, and
             740      may assess costs against any other claimant or claimants to the property as appropriate.


             741          Section 15. Section 70A-1-105 is amended to read:
             742           70A-1-105. Territorial application of title -- Parties' power to choose applicable law.
             743          (1) Except as provided in this section, when a transaction bears a reasonable relation to
             744      this state and also to another state or nation, the parties may agree that the law either of this state
             745      or of such other state or nation shall govern their rights and duties. Failing such agreement, this
             746      title applies to transactions bearing an appropriate relation to this state.
             747          (2) Where one of the following provisions of this title specifies the applicable law, that
             748      provision governs and a contrary agreement is effective only to the extent permitted by the law,
             749      including the conflict of laws rules, so specified:
             750          (a) rights of creditors against sold goods under Section 70A-2-402 ;
             751          (b) applicability of the chapter on leases under Sections 70A-2a-105 and 70A-2a-106 ;
             752          (c) applicability of the chapter on [Bank Deposits and Collections] bank deposits and
             753      collections under Section 70A-4-102 ;
             754          (d) applicability of the chapter on letters of credit under Section 70A-5-116 ;
             755          [(d)] (e) applicability of the chapter on [Investment Securities] investment securities under
             756      Section 70A-8-109 ; or
             757          [(e) perfection provisions of the chapter on Secured Transactions under Section
             758      70A-9-103 ; or]
             759          (f) law governing perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of
             760      security interests and agricultural liens under Sections 70A-9a-301 through 70A-9a-307 .
             761          [(f) applicability of the chapter on Letters of Credit under Section 70A-5-116 .]
             762          Section 16. Section 70A-1-201 is amended to read:
             763           70A-1-201. General definitions.
             764          In addition to definitions contained in the subsequent chapters of this title and unless the
             765      context otherwise requires, in this title:
             766          (1) "Action" in the sense of a judicial proceeding includes recoupment, counterclaim,
             767      setoff, suit in equity, and any other proceedings in which rights are determined.
             768          (2) "Aggrieved party" means a party entitled to resort to a remedy.
             769          (3) "Agreement" means the bargain of the parties in fact as found in their language or by
             770      implication from other circumstances including course of dealing or usage of trade or course of
             771      performance as provided in Sections 70A-1-205 and 70A-2-208 . Whether an agreement has legal


             772      consequences is determined by the provisions of this title, if applicable; otherwise by the law of
             773      contracts as provided in Section 70A-1-103 . Compare the definition of "contract" in Subsection
             774      (11).
             775          (4) "Bank" means any person engaged in the business of banking.
             776          (5) "Bearer" means the person in possession of an instrument, document of title, or
             777      certificated security payable to bearer or indorsed in blank.
             778          (6) "Bill of lading" means a document evidencing the receipt of goods for shipment issued
             779      by a person engaged in the business of transporting or forwarding goods, and includes an airbill.
             780      "Airbill" means a document serving for air transportation as a bill of lading does for marine or rail
             781      transportation, and includes an air consignment note or air waybill.
             782          (7) "Branch" includes a separately incorporated foreign branch of a bank.
             783          (8) "Burden of establishing a fact" means the burden of persuading the triers of fact that
             784      the existence of the fact is more probable than its nonexistence.
             785          (9) "Buyer in ordinary course of business" means a person [who] that buys goods, in good
             786      faith [and], without knowledge that the sale [to him is in violation of] violates the [ownership]
             787      rights [or security interest] of [a third party] another person in the goods, [buys] and in the ordinary
             788      course from a person, other than a pawnbroker, in the business of selling goods of that kind [but
             789      does not include a pawnbroker. All persons who sell minerals or the like, including oil and gas,
             790      at wellhead or minehead are considered to be persons]. A person buys goods in the ordinary
             791      course if the sale to the person comports with the usual or customary practices in the kind of
             792      business in which the seller is engaged or with the seller's own usual or customary practices. A
             793      person that sells oil, gas, or other minerals at the wellhead or minehead is a person in the business
             794      of selling goods of that kind. ["Buying"] A buyer in ordinary course of business may [be] buy for
             795      cash [or], by exchange of other property, or on secured or unsecured credit, and [includes
             796      receiving] may acquire goods or documents of title under a preexisting contract for sale [but does
             797      not include a transfer in bulk or as security for or in total or partial satisfaction of a money debt].
             798      Only a buyer that takes possession of the goods or has a right to recover the goods from the seller
             799      under Chapter 2 may be a buyer in ordinary course of business. A person that acquires goods in
             800      a transfer in bulk or as security for or in total or partial satisfaction of a money debt is not a buyer
             801      in ordinary course of business.
             802          (10) "Conspicuous" means a term or clause that is so written that a reasonable person


             803      against whom it is to operate ought to have noticed it. A printed heading in capitals such as:
             804      NONNEGOTIABLE BILL OF LADING is conspicuous. Language in the body of a form is
             805      "conspicuous" if it is in larger or other contrasting type or color. In a telegram any stated term is
             806      "conspicuous." Whether a term or clause is "conspicuous" or not is for decision by the court.
             807          (11) "Contract" means the total legal obligation which results from the parties' agreement
             808      as affected by this title and any other applicable rules of law. Compare the definition of
             809      "agreement" in Subsection (3).
             810          (12) "Creditor" includes a general creditor, a secured creditor, a lien creditor, and any
             811      representative of creditors, including an assignee for the benefit of creditors, a trustee in
             812      bankruptcy, a receiver in equity, and an executor or administrator of an insolvent debtor's or
             813      assignor's estate.
             814          (13) "Defendant" includes a person in the position of defendant in a cross-action or
             815      counterclaim.
             816          (14) "Delivery" with respect to instruments, documents of title, chattel paper, or
             817      certificated securities means voluntary transfer of possession.
             818          (15) "Document of title" includes bill of lading, dock warrant, dock receipt, warehouse
             819      receipt, or order for the delivery of goods, and also any other document which in the regular course
             820      of business or financing is treated as adequately representing that the person in possession of it is
             821      entitled to receive, hold and dispose of the document and the goods it covers. To be a document
             822      of title, a document must purport to be issued by or addressed to a bailee and purport to cover
             823      goods in the bailee's possession which are either identified or are fungible portions of an identified
             824      mass.
             825          (16) "Fault" means wrongful act, omission, or breach.
             826          (17) "Fungible" with respect to goods or securities means goods or securities of which any
             827      unit is, by nature or usage of trade, the equivalent of any other like unit. Goods which are not
             828      fungible are considered fungible for the purposes of this title to the extent that under a particular
             829      agreement or document unlike units are treated as equivalents.
             830          (18) "Genuine" means free of forgery or counterfeiting.
             831          (19) "Good faith" means honesty in fact in the conduct or transaction concerned.
             832          (20) "Holder" with respect to a negotiable instrument, certificated security, or document
             833      of title means the person in possession if:


             834          (a) in the case of a negotiable instrument payable to bearer or to an identified person, the
             835      identified person is in possession;
             836          (b) in the case of a security, the person in possession is the registered owner, or the security
             837      has been indorsed to the person in possession by the registered owner, or the security is in bearer
             838      form; or
             839          (c) in the case of a document of title, the goods are deliverable to bearer or to the order of
             840      the person in possession.
             841          (21) To "honor" is to pay or to accept and pay, or where a credit so engages to purchase
             842      or discount a draft complying with the terms of the credit.
             843          (22) "Insolvency proceedings" includes any assignment for the benefit of creditors or other
             844      proceedings intended to liquidate or rehabilitate the estate of the person involved.
             845          (23) A person is "insolvent" who either has ceased to pay his debts in the ordinary course
             846      of business or cannot pay his debts as they become due or if he is insolvent within the meaning of
             847      the federal bankruptcy law.
             848          (24) "Money" means a medium of exchange authorized or adopted by a domestic or
             849      foreign government or intergovernmental organization and includes a monetary unit of account
             850      established by an intergovernmental organization or by agreement between two or more nations.
             851          (25) (a) A person has "notice" of a fact when:
             852          (i) he has actual knowledge of it;
             853          (ii) he has received a notice or notification of it; or
             854          (iii) from all the facts and circumstances known to him at the time in question he has
             855      reason to know that it exists.
             856          (b) A person "knows" or has "knowledge" of a fact when he has actual knowledge of it.
             857          (c) "Discover" or "learn" or a word or phrase of similar import refers to knowledge rather
             858      than to reason to know.
             859          (d) The time and circumstances under which a notice or notification may cease to be
             860      effective are not determined by this title.
             861          (26) (a) A person "notifies" or "gives" a notice or notification to another by taking such
             862      steps as may be reasonably required to inform the other person in ordinary course whether or not
             863      the other person actually comes to know of it.
             864          (b) A person "receives" a notice or notification when:


             865          (i) it comes to his attention; or
             866          (ii) it is duly delivered at the place of business through which the contract was made or at
             867      any other place held out by him as the place for receipt of such communications.
             868          (27) Notice, knowledge of a notice, or notification received by an organization is effective
             869      for a particular transaction from the time when it is brought to the attention of the individual
             870      conducting that transaction, and in any event from the time when it would have been brought to
             871      his attention if the organization had exercised due diligence. An organization exercises due
             872      diligence if it maintains reasonable routines for communicating significant information to the
             873      person conducting the transaction and there is reasonable compliance with the routines. Due
             874      diligence does not require an individual acting for the organization to communicate information
             875      unless such communication is part of his regular duties or unless he has reason to know of the
             876      transaction and that the transaction would be materially affected by the information.
             877          (28) "Organization" includes a corporation, government or governmental subdivision or
             878      agency, business trust, estate, trust, partnership or association, two or more persons having a joint
             879      or common interest, or any other legal or commercial entity.
             880          (29) "Party," as distinct from "third party," means a person who has engaged in a
             881      transaction or made an agreement within this title.
             882          (30) "Person" includes an individual or an organization as provided in Section 70A-1-102 .
             883          (31) "Presumption" or "presumed" means that the trier of fact must find the existence of
             884      the fact presumed unless and until evidence is introduced which would support a finding of its
             885      nonexistence.
             886          (32) "Purchase" includes taking by sale, discount, negotiation, mortgage, pledge, lien,
             887      security interest, issue or reissue, gift, or any other voluntary transaction creating an interest in
             888      property.
             889          (33) "Purchaser" means a person who takes by purchase.
             890          (34) "Remedy" means any remedial right to which an aggrieved party is entitled with or
             891      without resort to a tribunal.
             892          (35) "Representative" includes an agent, an officer of a corporation or association, and a
             893      trustee, executor, or administrator of an estate, or any other person empowered to act for another.
             894          (36) "Rights" includes remedies.
             895          (37) (a) "Security interest" means an interest in personal property or fixtures which secures


             896      payment or performance of an obligation. [The retention or reservation of title by a seller of goods,
             897      notwithstanding shipment or delivery to the buyer as provided in Section 70A-2-401 , is limited in
             898      effect to a reservation of a "security interest."] The term also includes any interest of a consignor
             899      and a buyer of accounts [or], chattel paper [which], a payment intangible, or a promissory note in
             900      a transaction that is subject to Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured
             901      Transactions. The special property interest of a buyer of goods on identification of those goods
             902      to a contract for sale under Section 70A-2-401 is not a "security interest," but a buyer may also
             903      acquire a "security interest" by complying with Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code
             904      -- Secured Transactions. [Unless a consignment is intended as security, reservation of title under
             905      the consignment is not a "security interest." A consignment in any event is subject to the
             906      provisions on consignment sales provided in Section 70A-2-326 .] Except as otherwise provided
             907      in Section 70A-2-505 , the right of a seller or lessor of goods under Chapter 2 or 2A to retain or
             908      acquire possession of the goods is not a "security interest," but a seller or lessor may also acquire
             909      a "security interest" by complying with Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured
             910      Transactions. The retention or reservation of title by a seller of goods notwithstanding shipment
             911      or delivery to the buyer (Section 70A-2-401 ) is limited in effect to a reservation of a "security
             912      interest." Notwithstanding anything in Title 70A to the contrary, "security interest" does not
             913      include a rental purchase agreement as defined in Section 15-8-3 .
             914          (b) Whether a transaction creates a lease or security interest is determined by the facts of
             915      each case; however, a transaction creates a security interest if the consideration the lessee is to pay
             916      the lessor for the right to possession and use of the goods is an obligation for the term of the lease
             917      not subject to termination by the lessee, and:
             918          (i) the original term of the lease is equal to or greater than the remaining economic life of
             919      the goods;
             920          (ii) the lessee is bound to renew the lease for the remaining economic life of the goods or
             921      is bound to become the owner of the goods;
             922          (iii) the lessee has an option to renew the lease for the remaining economic life of the
             923      goods for no additional consideration or nominal additional consideration upon compliance with
             924      the lease agreement; or
             925          (iv) the lessee has an option to become the owner of the goods for no additional
             926      consideration or nominal additional consideration upon compliance with the lease agreement.


             927          (c) A transaction does not create a security interest merely because it provides that:
             928          (i) the present value of the consideration the lessee is obligated to pay the lessor for the
             929      right to possession and use of the goods is substantially equal to or is greater than the fair market
             930      value of the goods at the time the lease is entered into;
             931          (ii) the lessee assumes risk of loss of the goods, or agrees to pay taxes, insurance, filing,
             932      recording, or registration fees, or service or maintenance costs with respect to the goods;
             933          (iii) the lessee has an option to renew the lease or to become the owner of the goods;
             934          (iv) the lessee has an option to renew the lease for a fixed rent that is equal to or greater
             935      than the reasonably predictable fair market rent for the use of the goods for the term of the renewal
             936      at the time the option is to be performed; or
             937          (v) the lessee has an option to become the owner of the goods for a fixed price that is equal
             938      to or greater than the reasonably predictable fair market value of the goods at the time the option
             939      is to be performed.
             940          (d) For purposes of this subsection:
             941          (i) Additional consideration is not nominal if, when the option to renew the lease is granted
             942      to the lessee, the rent is stated to be the fair market rent for the use of the goods for the term of the
             943      renewal determined at the time the option is to be performed, or when the option to become the
             944      owner of the goods is granted to the lessee the price is stated to be the fair market value of the
             945      goods determined at the time the option is to be performed.
             946          (ii) Additional consideration is nominal if it is less than the lessee's reasonably predictable
             947      cost of performing under the lease agreement if the option is not exercised.
             948          (iii) "Reasonably predictable" and "remaining economic life of the goods" are to be
             949      determined with reference to the facts and circumstances at the time the transaction is entered into.
             950          (iv) "Present value" means the amount as of a date certain of one or more sums payable
             951      in the future, discounted to the date certain. The discount is determined by the interest rate
             952      specified by the parties if the rate is not manifestly unreasonable at the time the transaction is
             953      entered into; otherwise, the discount is determined by a commercially reasonable rate that takes
             954      into account the facts and circumstances of each case at the time the transaction was entered into.
             955          (38) "Send" in connection with any writing or notice means to deposit in the mail or
             956      deliver for transmission by any other usual means of communication with postage or the cost of
             957      the transmission provided for and properly addressed, and, in the case of an instrument, to an


             958      address specified thereon or otherwise agreed, or if there be none to any address reasonable under
             959      the circumstances. The receipt of any writing or notice within the time at which it would have
             960      arrived if properly sent has the effect of a proper sending.
             961          (39) "Signed" includes any symbol executed or adopted by a party with present intention
             962      to authenticate a writing.
             963          (40) "Surety" includes guarantor.
             964          (41) "Telegram" includes a message transmitted by radio, teletype, cable, any mechanical
             965      method of transmission, or the like.
             966          (42) "Term" means that portion of an agreement which relates to a particular matter.
             967          (43) "Unauthorized signature" means one made without actual, implied, or apparent
             968      authority and includes a forgery.
             969          (44) "Value." Except as otherwise provided with respect to negotiable instruments and
             970      bank collections as in Sections 70A-3-303 , 70A-4-210 , and 70A-4-211 , a person gives "value"
             971      for rights if he acquires them:
             972          (a) in return for a binding commitment to extend credit or for the extension of immediately
             973      available credit whether or not drawn upon and whether or not a charge-back is provided for in the
             974      event of difficulties in collection;
             975          (b) as security for or in total or partial satisfaction of a preexisting claim;
             976          (c) by accepting delivery pursuant to a preexisting contract for purchase; or
             977          (d) generally, in return for any consideration sufficient to support a simple contract.
             978          (45) "Warehouse receipt" means a receipt issued by a person engaged in the business of
             979      storing goods for hire.
             980          (46) "Written" or "writing" includes printing, typewriting, or any other intentional
             981      reduction to tangible form.
             982          Section 17. Section 70A-1-206 is amended to read:
             983           70A-1-206. Statute of frauds for kinds of personal property not otherwise covered.
             984          (1) Except in the cases described in Subsection (2) of this section, a contract for the sale
             985      of personal property is not enforceable by way of action or defense beyond $5,000 in amount or
             986      value of remedy unless there is some writing which indicates that a contract for sale has been made
             987      between the parties at a defined or stated price, reasonably identifies the subject matter, and is
             988      signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought or by his authorized agent.


             989          (2) Subsection (1) of this section does not apply to contracts for the sale of goods (Section
             990      70A-2-201 ) nor of securities (Section 70A-8-112 ) nor to security agreements (Section [ 70A-9-203 ]
             991      70A-9a-203 ).
             992          Section 18. Section 70A-2-103 is amended to read:
             993           70A-2-103. Definitions and index of definitions.
             994          (1) In this chapter unless the context otherwise requires:
             995          (a) "Buyer" means a person who buys or contracts to buy goods.
             996          (b) "Good faith" in the case of a merchant means honesty in fact and the observance of
             997      reasonable commercial standards of fair dealing in the trade.
             998          (c) "Receipt" of goods means taking physical possession of them.
             999          (d) "Seller" means a person who sells or contracts to sell goods.
             1000          (2) Other definitions applying to this chapter or to specified parts thereof, and the sections
             1001      in which they appear are:
             1002          (a) "Acceptance." Section 70A-2-606 .
             1003          (b) "Banker's credit." Section 70A-2-325 .
             1004          (c)" Between merchants." Section 70A-2-104 .
             1005          (d) "Cancellation." Subsection 70A-2-106 (4).
             1006          (e) "Commercial unit." Section 70A-2-105 .
             1007          (f) "Confirmed credit." Section 70A-2-325 .
             1008          (g) "Conforming to contract." Section 70A-2-106 .
             1009          (h) "Contract for sale." Section 70A-2-106 .
             1010          (i) "Cover." Section 70A-2-712 .
             1011          (j) "Entrusting." Section 70A-2-403 .
             1012          (k) "Financing agency." Section 70A-2-104 .
             1013          (l) "Future goods." Section 70A-2-105 .
             1014          (m) "Goods." Section 70A-2-105 .
             1015          (n) "Identification." Section 70A-2-501 .
             1016          (o) "Installment contract." Section 70A-2-612 .
             1017          (p) "Letter of Credit." Section 70A-2-325 .
             1018          (q) "Lot." Section 70A-2-105 .
             1019          (r) "Merchant." Section 70A-2-104 .


             1020          (s) "Overseas." Section 70A-2-323 .
             1021          (t) "Person in position of seller." Section 70A-2-707 .
             1022          (u) "Present sale." Section 70A-2-106 .
             1023          (v) "Sale." Section 70A-2-106 .
             1024          (w) "Sale on approval." Section 70A-2-326 .
             1025          (x) "Sale or return." Section 70A-2-326 .
             1026          (y) "Termination." Section 70A-2-106 .
             1027          (3) The following definitions in other chapters apply to this chapter:
             1028          (a) "Check." Section 70A-3-104 .
             1029          (b) "Consignee." Section 70A-7-102 .
             1030          (c) "Consignor." Section 70A-7-102 .
             1031          (d) "Consumer goods." Section [ 70A-9-109 ] 70A-9a-102 .
             1032          (e) "Dishonor." Section 70A-3-502 .
             1033          (f) "Draft." Section 70A-3-104 .
             1034          (4) In addition Chapter 1 contains general definitions and principles of construction and
             1035      interpretation applicable throughout this chapter.
             1036          Section 19. Section 70A-2-210 is amended to read:
             1037           70A-2-210. Delegation of performance -- Assignment of rights.
             1038          (1) A party may perform his duty through a delegate unless otherwise agreed or unless the
             1039      other party has a substantial interest in having his original promisor perform or control the acts
             1040      required by the contract. No delegation of performance relieves the party delegating of any duty
             1041      to perform or any liability for breach.
             1042          (2) [Unless] Except as otherwise provided in Section 70A-9a-406 , unless otherwise
             1043      agreed, all rights of either seller or buyer can be assigned except where the assignment would
             1044      materially change the duty of the other party, or increase materially the burden or risk imposed on
             1045      him by his contract, or impair materially his chance of obtaining return performance. A right to
             1046      damages for breach of the whole contract or a right arising out of the assignor's due performance
             1047      of his entire obligation can be assigned despite agreement otherwise.
             1048          (3) The creation, attachment, perfection, or enforcement of a security interest in the seller's
             1049      interest under a contract is not a transfer that materially changes the duty of or increases materially
             1050      the burden or risk imposed on the buyer or impairs materially the buyer's chance of obtaining


             1051      return performance within the purview of Subsection (2) unless, and then only to the extent that,
             1052      enforcement actually results in a delegation of material performance of the seller. Even in that
             1053      event, the creation, attachment, perfection, and enforcement of the security interest remain
             1054      effective, but:
             1055          (a) the seller is liable to the buyer for damages caused by the delegation to the extent that
             1056      the damages could not reasonably be prevented by the buyer; and
             1057          (b) a court having jurisdiction may grant other appropriate relief, including cancellation
             1058      of the contract for sale or an injunction against enforcement of the security interest or
             1059      consummation of the enforcement.
             1060          [(3)] (4) Unless the circumstances indicate the contrary a prohibition of assignment of "the
             1061      contract" is to be construed as barring only the delegation of (to) the assignee of the assignor's
             1062      performance.
             1063          [(4)] (5) An assignment of "the contract" or of "all my rights under the contract" or an
             1064      assignment in similar general terms is an assignment of rights and unless the language or the
             1065      circumstances (as in an assignment of (for) security) indicate the contrary, it is a delegation of
             1066      performance of the duties of the assignor and its acceptance by the assignee constitutes a promise
             1067      by him to perform those duties. This promise is enforceable by either the assignor or the other
             1068      party to the original contract.
             1069          [(5)] (6) The other party may treat any assignment which delegates performance as creating
             1070      reasonable grounds for insecurity and may without prejudice to his rights against the assignor
             1071      demand assurances from the assignee (Section 70A-2-609 ).
             1072          Section 20. Section 70A-2-326 is amended to read:
             1073           70A-2-326. Sale on approval and sale or return -- Rights of creditors.
             1074          (1) Unless otherwise agreed, if delivered goods may be returned by the buyer even though
             1075      they conform to the contract, the transaction is:
             1076          (a) a "sale on approval" if the goods are delivered primarily for use[,]; and
             1077          (b) a "sale or return" if the goods are delivered primarily for resale.
             1078          (2) [Except as provided in Subsection (3), goods] Goods held on approval are not subject
             1079      to the claims of the buyer's creditors until acceptance; goods held on sale or return are subject to
             1080      such claims while in the buyer's possession.
             1081          [(3) Where goods are delivered to a person for sale and such person maintains a place of


             1082      business at which he deals in goods of the kind involved, under a name other than the name of the
             1083      person making delivery then with respect to claims of creditors of the person conducting the
             1084      business the goods are deemed to be on sale or return. The provisions of this subsection are
             1085      applicable even though an agreement purports to reserve title to the person making delivery until
             1086      payment or resale or uses such words as "on consignment" or "on memorandum." However, this
             1087      subsection is not applicable if the person making delivery]
             1088          [(a) complies with an applicable law providing for a consignor's interest or the like to be
             1089      evidenced by a sign, or]
             1090          [(b) establishes that the person conducting the business is generally known by his creditors
             1091      to be substantially engaged in selling the goods of others, or]
             1092          [(c) complies with the filing provisions of the chapter on Secured Transactions (Chapter
             1093      9).]
             1094          [(4)] (3) Any "or return" term of a contract for sale is to be treated as a separate contract
             1095      for sale within the statute of frauds section of this chapter (Section 70A-2-201 ) and as
             1096      contradicting the sale aspect of the contract within the provisions of this chapter on parol or
             1097      extrinsic evidence (Section 70A-2-202 ).
             1098          Section 21. Section 70A-2-502 is amended to read:
             1099           70A-2-502. Buyer's right to goods on seller's repudiation, failure to deliver, or
             1100      insolvency.
             1101          (1) Subject to [Subsection] Subsections (2) and (3) and even though the goods have not
             1102      been shipped a buyer who has paid a part or all of the price of goods in which he has a special
             1103      property under the provisions of the immediately preceding section may on making and keeping
             1104      good a tender of any unpaid portion of their price recover them from the seller if:
             1105          (a) in the case of goods bought for personal, family, or household purposes, the seller
             1106      repudiates or fails to deliver as required by the contract; or
             1107          (b) in all cases, the seller becomes insolvent within ten days after receipt of the first
             1108      installment on their price.
             1109          (2) The buyer's right to recover the goods under Subsection (1)(a) vests upon acquisition
             1110      of a special property, even if the seller had not then repudiated or failed to deliver.
             1111          [(2)] (3) If the identification creating his special property has been made by the buyer he
             1112      acquires the right to recover the goods only if they conform to the contract for sale.


             1113          Section 22. Section 70A-2-716 is amended to read:
             1114           70A-2-716. Buyer's right to specific performance or replevin.
             1115          (1) Specific performance may be decreed where the goods are unique or in other proper
             1116      circumstances.
             1117          (2) The decree for specific performance may include such terms and conditions as to
             1118      payment of the price, damages, or other relief as the court may deem just.
             1119          (3) The buyer has a right of replevin for goods identified to the contract if after reasonable
             1120      effort he is unable to effect cover for such goods or the circumstances reasonably indicate that such
             1121      effort will be unavailing or if the goods have been shipped under reservation and satisfaction of
             1122      the security interest in them has been made or tendered. In the case of goods bought for personal,
             1123      family, or household purposes, the buyer's right of replevin vests upon acquisition of a special
             1124      property, even if the seller had not then repudiated or failed to deliver.
             1125          Section 23. Section 70A-2a-103 is amended to read:
             1126           70A-2a-103. Definitions -- Index of definitions.
             1127          (1) In this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires:
             1128          (a) "Buyer in ordinary course of business" means a person, who in good faith and without
             1129      knowledge that the sale to him is in violation of the ownership rights or security interest or
             1130      leasehold interest of a third party in the goods, buys in ordinary course from a person in the
             1131      business of selling goods of that kind, but does not include a pawnbroker. "Buying" may be for
             1132      cash or by exchange of other property or on secured or unsecured credit and includes receiving
             1133      goods or documents of title under a preexisting contract for sale, but does not include a transfer
             1134      in bulk, or as security for, or in total or partial satisfaction of a money debt.
             1135          (b) "Cancellation" occurs when either party puts an end to the lease contract for default
             1136      by the other party.
             1137          (c) "Commercial unit" means a unit of goods which by commercial usage is a single whole
             1138      for purposes of lease, and the division of which materially impairs its character or value on the
             1139      market or in use. A commercial unit may be a single article, such as a machine, or a set of articles,
             1140      such as a suite of furniture or a line of machinery, or a quantity, such as a gross or carload, or any
             1141      other unit treated in use or in the relevant market as a single whole.
             1142          (d) "Conforming goods or performance under a lease contract" means goods or
             1143      performance that are in accordance with the obligations under the lease contract.


             1144          (e) "Consumer lease" means a lease that a lessor, regularly engaged in the business of
             1145      leasing or selling, makes to a lessee, who is an individual and who takes under the lease primarily
             1146      for a personal, family, or household purpose.
             1147          (f) "Fault" means wrongful act, omission, breach, or default.
             1148          (g) "Finance lease" means a lease in which:
             1149          (i) the lessor does not select, manufacture, or supply the goods;
             1150          (ii) the lessor acquires the goods or the right to possession and use of the goods in
             1151      connection with the lease; and
             1152          (iii) one of the following occurs:
             1153          (A) the lessee receives a copy of the contract by which the lessor acquired the goods or the
             1154      right to possession and use of the goods before signing the lease contract;
             1155          (B) the lessee's approval of the contract by which the lessor acquired the goods or the right
             1156      to possession and use of the goods is a condition to effectiveness of the lease contract;
             1157          (C) the lessee, before signing the lease contract, receives an accurate and complete
             1158      statement designating the promises and warranties, and any disclaimers of warranties, limitations,
             1159      or modifications of remedies, or liquidated damages, including those of a third party, such as the
             1160      manufacturer of the goods, provided to the lessor by the person supplying the goods in connection
             1161      with or as part of the contract by which the lessor acquired the goods or the right to possession and
             1162      use of the goods; or
             1163          (D) if the lease is not a consumer lease, the lessor, before the lessee signs the lease
             1164      contract, informs the lessee in writing:
             1165          (I) of the identity of the person supplying the goods to the lessor, unless the lessee has
             1166      selected that person and directed the lessor to acquire the goods or the right to possession and use
             1167      of the goods from that person;
             1168          (II) that the lessee is entitled under this chapter to the promises and warranties, including
             1169      those of any third party, provided to the lessor by the person supplying the goods in connection
             1170      with or as part of the contract by which the lessor acquired the goods or the right to possession and
             1171      use of the goods; and
             1172          (III) that the lessee may communicate with the person supplying the goods to the lessor
             1173      and receive an accurate and complete statement of those promises and warranties, including any
             1174      disclaimers and limitations of them or of remedies.


             1175          (h) "Goods" means all things that are movable at the time of identification to the lease
             1176      contract, or are fixtures. The term does not include money, documents, instruments, accounts,
             1177      chattel paper, general intangibles, or minerals or the like, including oil and gas, before extraction.
             1178      The term also includes the unborn young of animals.
             1179          (i) "Installment lease contract" means a lease contract that authorizes or requires the
             1180      delivery of goods in separate lots to be separately accepted, even though the lease contract contains
             1181      a clause stating "each delivery is a separate lease" or its equivalent.
             1182          (j) "Lease" means a transfer of the right to possession and use of goods for a term, in return
             1183      for consideration. Unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the term includes a sublease.
             1184      But a sale, including a sale on approval or a sale or return, or retention or creation of a security
             1185      interest is not a lease.
             1186          (k) "Lease agreement" with respect to the lease, means the bargain of the lessor and the
             1187      lessee in fact as found in their language or by implication from other circumstances including
             1188      course of dealing or usage of trade or course of performance as provided in this chapter. Unless
             1189      the context clearly indicates otherwise, the term includes a sublease agreement.
             1190          (l) "Lease contract" means the total legal obligation that results from the lease agreement
             1191      as affected by this chapter and any other applicable rules of law. Unless the context clearly
             1192      indicates otherwise, the term includes a sublease contract.
             1193          (m) "Leasehold interest" means the interest of the lessor or the lessee under a lease
             1194      contract.
             1195          (n) "Lessee" means a person who acquires the right to possession and use of goods under
             1196      a lease. Unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the term includes a sublessee.
             1197          (o) "Lessee in ordinary course of business" means a person who in good faith and without
             1198      knowledge that the lease to him is in violation of the ownership rights, security interest, or
             1199      leasehold interest of a third party in the goods, leases in ordinary course from a person in the
             1200      business of selling or leasing goods of that kind, but does not include a pawnbroker. "Leasing"
             1201      may be for cash or by exchange of other property, or on secured or unsecured credit, and includes
             1202      receiving goods or documents of title under a preexisting lease contract. "Leasing" does not
             1203      include a transfer in bulk or as security for or in total or partial satisfaction of a money debt.
             1204          (p) "Lessor" means a person who transfers the right to possession and use of goods under
             1205      a lease. Unless the context clearly indicates otherwise, the term includes a sublessor.


             1206          (q) "Lessor's residual interest" means the lessor's interest in the goods after expiration,
             1207      termination, or cancellation of the lease contract.
             1208          (r) "Lien" means a charge against or interest in goods to secure payment of a debt or
             1209      performance of an obligation, but the term does not include a security interest.
             1210          (s) "Lot" means a parcel or single article that is the subject matter of a separate lease or
             1211      delivery, whether or not it is sufficient to perform the lease contract.
             1212          (t) "Merchant lessee" means a lessee that is a merchant with respect to goods of the kind
             1213      subject to the lease.
             1214          (u) "Present value" means the amount as of a date certain of one or more sums payable in
             1215      the future, discounted to the date certain. The discount is determined by the interest rate specified
             1216      by the parties if the rate was not manifestly unreasonable at the time the transaction was entered
             1217      into; otherwise, the discount is determined by a commercially reasonable rate that takes into
             1218      account the facts and circumstances of each case at the time the transaction was entered into.
             1219          (v) "Purchase" includes taking by sale, lease, mortgage, security interest, pledge, gift, or
             1220      any other voluntary transaction creating an interest in goods.
             1221          (w) "Sublease" means a lease of goods, the right to possession and use of which was
             1222      acquired by the lessor as a lessee under an existing lease.
             1223          (x) "Supplier" means a person from whom a lessor buys or leases goods to be leased under
             1224      a finance lease.
             1225          (y) "Supply contract" means a contract under which a lessor buys or leases goods to be
             1226      leased.
             1227          (z) "Termination" occurs when either party, pursuant to a power created by agreement or
             1228      law, puts an end to the lease contract otherwise than for default.
             1229          (2) Other definitions applying to this chapter and the sections in which they appear are:
             1230          (a) "Accessions," Section 70A-2a-310 ;
             1231          (b) "Construction mortgage," Section 70A-2a-309 ;
             1232          (c) "Encumbrance," Section 70A-2a-309 ;
             1233          (d) "Fixtures," Section 70A-2a-309 ;
             1234          (e) "Fixture filing," Section 70A-2a-309 ; and
             1235          (f) "Purchase money lease," Section 70A-2a-309 .
             1236          (3) The following definitions in other chapters apply to this chapter:


             1237          (a) "Account," [Section 70A-9-106 ] Subsection 70A-9a-102 (2);
             1238          (b) "Between merchants," Section 70A-2-104 ;
             1239          (c) "Buyer," Section 70A-2-103 ;
             1240          (d) "Chattel paper," [Section 70A-9-105 ] Subsection 70A-9a-102 (11);
             1241          (e) "Consumer goods," [Section 70A-9-109 ] Subsection 70A-9a-102 (23);
             1242          (f) "Document," [Section 70A-9-105 ] Subsection 70A-9a-102 (30);
             1243          (g) "Entrusting," Section 70A-2-403 ;
             1244          (h) "General [intangibles] intangible," [Section 70A-9-106 ] Subsection 70A-9a-102 (42);
             1245          (i) "Good faith," Section 70A-2-103 ;
             1246          (j) "Instrument," [Section 70A-9-105 ] Subsection 70A-9a-102 (47);
             1247          (k) "Merchant," Section 70A-2-104 ;
             1248          (l) "Mortgage," [Section 70A-9-105 ] Subsection 70A-9a-102 (55);
             1249          (m) "Pursuant to commitment," [Section 70A-9-105 ] Subsection 70A-9a-102 (68);
             1250          (n) "Receipt," Section 70A-2-103 ;
             1251          (o) "Sale," Section 70A-2-106 ;
             1252          (p) "Sale on approval," Section 70A-2-326 ;
             1253          (q) "Sale or return," Section 70A-2-326 ; and
             1254          (r) "Seller," Section 70A-2-103 .
             1255          (4) In addition, Title 70A, Chapter 1, Uniform Commercial Code -- General Provisions,
             1256      contains general definitions and principles of construction and interpretation applicable throughout
             1257      this chapter.
             1258          Section 24. Section 70A-2a-303 is amended to read:
             1259           70A-2a-303. Transfer of party's interest under lease contract or of lessor's residual
             1260      interest in goods -- Transfer as event of default -- Creation or enforcement of security
             1261      interest -- Transfer of right to damages for default.
             1262          (1) As used in this section, "creation of a security interest" includes the sale of a lease
             1263      contract subject to Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured Transactions, by
             1264      reason of [Section 70A-9-102 ] Subsection 70A-9a-109 (1)(c).
             1265          (2) Except as provided in [Subsections] Subsection (3) and [(4)] Section 70A-9a-407 , a
             1266      provision in a lease agreement that prohibits the voluntary or involuntary transfer (including a
             1267      transfer by sale, sublease, creation or enforcement of a security interest, or attachment, levy, or


             1268      other judicial process) of an interest of a party under the lease contract or of the lessor's residual
             1269      interest in the goods, or that makes such a transfer an event of default, gives rise to the rights and
             1270      remedies provided in Subsection [(5)] (4), but a transfer that is prohibited or is an event of default
             1271      under the lease agreement is otherwise effective.
             1272          [(3) A provision in a lease agreement that either prohibits the creation or enforcement of
             1273      a security interest in an interest of a party under the lease contract or in the lessor's residual interest
             1274      in the goods, or makes such a transfer an event of default, is not enforceable unless, and then only
             1275      to the extent that, there is an actual transfer by the lessee of the lessee's right of possession or use
             1276      of the goods in violation of the provision, or an actual delegation of a material performance of
             1277      either party to the lease contract in violation of the provision. Neither the granting nor the
             1278      enforcement of a security interest in either the lessor's interest under the lease contract or the
             1279      lessor's residual interest in the goods is a transfer that materially impairs the prospect of obtaining
             1280      return performance by, materially changes the duty of, or materially increases the burden or risk
             1281      imposed on, the lessee within the purview of Subsection (5) unless, and then only to the extent
             1282      that, there is an actual delegation of a material performance of the lessor.]
             1283          [(4)] (3) A provision in a lease agreement that prohibits a transfer of a right to damages
             1284      for default with respect to the whole lease contract or of a right to payment arising out of the
             1285      transferor's due performance of the transferor's entire obligation, or makes such a transfer an event
             1286      of default, is not enforceable, and such a transfer is not a transfer that materially impairs the
             1287      prospect of obtaining return performance by, materially changes the duty of, or materially increases
             1288      the burden or risk imposed on, the other party to the lease contract within the purview of
             1289      Subsection [(5)] (4).
             1290          [(5)] (4) Subject to [Subsections] Subsection (3) and [(4)] Section 70A-9a-407 :
             1291          (a) if a transfer is made that is made an event of default under a lease agreement, the party
             1292      to the lease contract not making the transfer, unless that party waives the default or otherwise
             1293      agrees, has the rights and remedies described in Section 70A-2a-501 ; and
             1294          (b) if Subsection [(5)] (4)(a) is not applicable and if a transfer is made that is prohibited
             1295      under a lease agreement, or materially impairs the prospect of obtaining return performance by,
             1296      materially changes the duty of, or materially increases the burden or risk imposed on, the other
             1297      party to the lease contract, unless the party not making the transfer agrees at any time to the
             1298      transfer in the lease contract or otherwise, then, except as limited by contract, the transferor is


             1299      liable to the party not making the transfer for damages caused by the transfer to the extent that the
             1300      damages could not reasonably be prevented by the party not making the transfer, and a court
             1301      having jurisdiction may grant other appropriate relief, including cancellation of the lease contract
             1302      or an injunction against the transfer.
             1303          [(6)] (5) A transfer of "the lease" or of "all my rights under the lease" or a transfer in
             1304      similar general terms, is a transfer of rights, and unless the language or the circumstances, as in a
             1305      transfer for security, indicate the contrary, the transfer is a delegation of duties by the transferor
             1306      to the transferee. Acceptance by the transferee constitutes a promise by the transferee to perform
             1307      those duties. The promise is enforceable by either the transferor or the other party to the lease
             1308      contract.
             1309          [(7)] (6) Unless otherwise agreed by the lessor and the lessee, a delegation of performance
             1310      does not relieve the transferor as against the other party of any duty to perform or any liability for
             1311      default.
             1312          [(8)] (7) In a consumer lease, to prohibit the transfer of an interest of a party under the
             1313      lease contract, or to make a transfer an event of default, the language must be specific, by writing,
             1314      and conspicuous.
             1315          Section 25. Section 70A-2a-307 is amended to read:
             1316           70A-2a-307. Priority of liens arising by attachment or levy on, security interests in,
             1317      and other claims to goods.
             1318          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Section 70A-2a-306 , a creditor of a lessee takes
             1319      subject to the lease contract.
             1320          (2) Except as otherwise provided in [Subsections] Subsection (3) [and (4)] and in Sections
             1321      70A-2a-306 and 70A-2a-308 , a creditor of a lessor takes subject to the lease contract unless[: (a)]
             1322      the creditor holds a lien that attached to the goods before the lease contract became enforceable[;].
             1323          [(b) the creditor holds a security interest in the goods and the lessee did not give value and
             1324      receive delivery of the goods without knowledge of the security interest; or]
             1325          [(c) the creditor holds a security interest in the goods that was perfected before the lease
             1326      contract became enforceable.]
             1327          [(3) A lessee in the ordinary course of business takes the leasehold interest free of a
             1328      security interest in the goods created by the lessor even though the security interest is perfected and
             1329      the lessee knows of its existence.]


             1330          [(4) A lessee other than a lessee in the ordinary course of business takes the leasehold
             1331      interest free of a security interest to the extent that it secures future advances made after the
             1332      secured party acquires knowledge of the lease or more than 45 days after the lease contract
             1333      becomes enforceable, whichever first occurs, unless the future advances are made pursuant to a
             1334      commitment entered into without knowledge of the lease and before the expiration of the 45-day
             1335      period.]
             1336          (3) Except as otherwise provided in Sections 70A-9a-317 , 70A-9a-321 , and 70A-9a-323 ,
             1337      a lessee takes a leasehold interest subject to a security interest held by a creditor of the lessor.
             1338          Section 26. Section 70A-2a-309 is amended to read:
             1339           70A-2a-309. Lessor's and lessee's rights when goods become fixtures.
             1340          (1) In this section:
             1341          (a) goods are "fixtures" when they become so related to particular real estate that an
             1342      interest in them arises under real estate law;
             1343          (b) a "fixture filing" is the filing, in the office where a record of a mortgage on the real
             1344      estate would be filed, recorded, or registered, of a financing statement covering goods that are or
             1345      are to become fixtures and conforming to the requirements of [Subsection 70A-9-402 (5)]
             1346      Subsections 70A-9a-502 (1) and (2);
             1347          (c) a lease is a "purchase money lease" unless the lessee has possession or use of the goods
             1348      or the right to possession or use of the goods before the lease agreement is enforceable;
             1349          (d) a mortgage is a "construction mortgage" to the extent it secures an obligation incurred
             1350      for the construction of an improvement on land including the acquisition cost of the land, if the
             1351      recorded writing so indicates; and
             1352          (e) "encumbrance" includes real estate mortgages and other liens on real estate and all
             1353      other rights in real estate that are not ownership interests.
             1354          (2) Under this chapter, a lease may be of goods that are fixtures or may continue in goods
             1355      that become fixtures, but no lease exists under this chapter of ordinary building materials
             1356      incorporated into an improvement on land.
             1357          (3) This chapter does not prevent creation of a lease of fixtures pursuant to real estate law.
             1358          (4) The perfected interest of a lessor of fixtures has priority over a conflicting interest of
             1359      an encumbrancer or owner of the real estate if:
             1360          (a) the lease is a purchase money lease, the conflicting interest of the encumbrancer or


             1361      owner arises before the goods become fixtures, a fixture filing covering the fixtures is filed or
             1362      recorded before the goods become fixtures or within ten days thereafter, and the lessee has an
             1363      interest of record in the real estate or is in possession of the real estate; or
             1364          (b) the interest of the lessor is perfected by a fixture filing before the interest of the
             1365      encumbrancer or owner is of record, the lessor's interest has priority over any conflicting interest
             1366      of a predecessor in title of the encumbrancer or owner, and the lessee has an interest of record in
             1367      the real estate or is in possession of the real estate.
             1368          (5) The interest of a lessor of fixtures, whether or not perfected, has priority over the
             1369      conflicting interest of an encumbrancer or owner of the real estate if:
             1370          (a) the fixtures are readily removable factory or office machines, readily removable
             1371      equipment that is not primarily used or leased for use in the operation of the real estate, or readily
             1372      removable replacements of domestic appliances that are goods subject to a consumer lease, and
             1373      before the goods become fixtures the lease contract is enforceable;
             1374          (b) the conflicting interest is a lien on the real estate obtained by legal or equitable
             1375      proceedings after the lease contract is enforceable;
             1376          (c) the encumbrancer or owner has consented in writing to the lease or has disclaimed an
             1377      interest in the goods as fixtures; or
             1378          (d) the lessee has a right to remove the goods as against the encumbrancer or owner. If
             1379      the lessee's right to remove terminates, the priority of the interest of the lessor continues for a
             1380      reasonable time.
             1381          (6) Notwithstanding Subsection (4)(a), but otherwise subject to Subsections (4) and (5),
             1382      the interest of a lessor of fixtures is subordinate to the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer of
             1383      the real estate under a construction mortgage recorded before the goods become fixtures if the
             1384      goods become fixtures before the completion of the construction. To the extent given to refinance
             1385      a construction mortgage, the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer of the real estate under a
             1386      mortgage has this priority to the same extent as the encumbrancer of the real estate under the
             1387      construction mortgage.
             1388          (7) In cases not within the preceding subsections, priority between the interest of a lessor
             1389      of fixtures, including the lessor's residual interest, and the conflicting interest of an encumbrancer
             1390      or owner of the real estate who is not the lessee is determined by the priority rules governing
             1391      conflicting interests in real estate.


             1392          (8) If the interest of a lessor of fixtures, including the lessor's residual interest, has priority
             1393      over all conflicting interests of all owners and encumbrances of the real estate, the lessor or the
             1394      lessee may:
             1395          (a) on default, expiration, termination, or cancellation of the lease agreement but subject
             1396      to the lease agreement and this chapter; or
             1397          (b) if necessary to enforce other rights and remedies of the lessor or lessee under this
             1398      chapter, remove the goods from the real estate, free and clear of all conflicting interests of all
             1399      owners and encumbrances of the real estate, but the lessor or lessee must reimburse any
             1400      encumbrancer or owner of the real estate who is not the lessee and who has not otherwise agreed
             1401      for the cost of repair of any physical injury, but not for any diminution in value of the real estate
             1402      caused by the absence of the goods removed or by any necessity of replacing them. A person
             1403      entitled to reimbursement may refuse permission to remove the goods until the party seeking
             1404      removal gives adequate security for the performance of this obligation.
             1405          (9) Even though the lease agreement does not create a security interest, the interest of a
             1406      lessor of fixtures, including the lessor's residual interest, is perfected by filing a financing
             1407      statement as a fixture filing for leased goods that are or are to become fixtures in accordance with
             1408      the relevant provisions of Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured
             1409      Transactions.
             1410          Section 27. Section 70A-3-605 is amended to read:
             1411           70A-3-605. Discharge of indorsers and accommodation parties.
             1412          (1) In this section, the term "indorser" includes a drawer having the obligation described
             1413      in Subsection 70A-3-414 (4).
             1414          (2) Discharge, under Section 70A-3-604 , of the obligation of a party to pay an instrument
             1415      does not discharge the obligation of an indorser or accommodation party having a right of recourse
             1416      against the discharged party.
             1417          (3) If a person entitled to enforce an instrument agrees, with or without consideration, to
             1418      an extension of the due date of the obligation of a party to pay the instrument, the extension
             1419      discharges an indorser or accommodation party having a right of recourse against the party whose
             1420      obligation is extended to the extent the indorser or accommodation party proves that the extension
             1421      caused loss to the indorser or accommodation party with respect to the right of recourse.
             1422          (4) If a person entitled to enforce an instrument agrees, with or without consideration, to


             1423      a material modification of the obligation of a party other than an extension of the due date, the
             1424      modification discharges the obligation of an indorser or accommodation party having a right of
             1425      recourse against the person whose obligation is modified to the extent the modification causes loss
             1426      to the indorser or accommodation party with respect to the right of recourse. The loss suffered by
             1427      the indorser or accommodation party as a result of the modification is equal to the amount of the
             1428      right of recourse unless the person enforcing the instrument proves that no loss was caused by the
             1429      modification or that the loss caused by the modification was an amount less than the amount of
             1430      the right of recourse.
             1431          (5) If the obligation of a party to pay an instrument is secured by an interest in collateral
             1432      and a person entitled to enforce the instrument impairs the value of the interest in collateral, the
             1433      obligation of an indorser or accommodation party having a right of recourse against the obligor is
             1434      discharged to the extent of the impairment. The value of an interest in collateral is impaired to the
             1435      extent the value of the interest is reduced to an amount less than the amount of the right of recourse
             1436      of the party asserting discharge, or the reduction in value of the interest causes an increase in the
             1437      amount by which the amount of the right of recourse exceeds the value of the interest. The burden
             1438      of proving impairment is on the party asserting discharge.
             1439          (6) If the obligation of a party is secured by an interest in collateral not provided by an
             1440      accommodation party and a person entitled to enforce the instrument impairs the value of the
             1441      interest in collateral, the obligation of any party who is jointly and severally liable with respect to
             1442      the secured obligation is discharged to the extent the impairment causes the party asserting
             1443      discharge to pay more than that party would have been obliged to pay, taking into account rights
             1444      of contribution, if impairment had not occurred. If the party asserting discharge is an
             1445      accommodation party not entitled to discharge under Subsection (5), the party is deemed to have
             1446      a right to contribution based on joint and several liability rather than a right to reimbursement. The
             1447      burden of proving impairment is on the party asserting discharge.
             1448          (7) Under Subsection (5) or (6), impairing value of an interest in collateral includes failure
             1449      to obtain or maintain perfection or recordation of the interest in collateral, release of collateral
             1450      without substitution of collateral of equal value, failure to perform a duty to preserve the value of
             1451      collateral owed, under Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured Transactions,
             1452      or other law, to a debtor or surety or other person secondarily liable, or failure to comply with
             1453      applicable law in disposing of collateral.


             1454          (8) An accommodation party is not discharged under Subsection (3), (4), or (5) unless the
             1455      person entitled to enforce the instrument knows of the accommodation or has notice under
             1456      Subsection 70A-3-419 (3) that the instrument was signed for accommodation.
             1457          (9) A party is not discharged under this section if the party asserting discharge consents
             1458      to the event or conduct that is the basis of the discharge, or the instrument or a separate agreement
             1459      of the party provides for waiver of discharge under this section either specifically or by general
             1460      language indicating that parties waive defenses based on suretyship or impairment of collateral.
             1461          Section 28. Section 70A-4-210 is amended to read:
             1462           70A-4-210. Security interest of collecting bank in items, accompanying documents,
             1463      and proceeds.
             1464          (1) A collecting bank has a security interest in an item and any accompanying documents
             1465      or the proceeds of either:
             1466          (a) in case of an item deposited in an account, to the extent to which credit given for the
             1467      item has been withdrawn or applied;
             1468          (b) in case of an item for which it has given credit available for withdrawal as of right, to
             1469      the extent of the credit given, whether or not the credit is drawn upon or there is a right of
             1470      charge-back; or
             1471          (c) if it makes an advance on or against the item.
             1472          (2) If credit given for several items received at one time or pursuant to a single agreement
             1473      is withdrawn or applied in part, the security interest remains upon all the items, any accompanying
             1474      documents or the proceeds of either. For the purpose of this section, credits first given are first
             1475      withdrawn.
             1476          (3) Receipt by a collecting bank of a final settlement for an item is a realization on its
             1477      security interest in the item, accompanying documents, and proceeds. So long as the bank does
             1478      not receive final settlement for the item or give up possession of the item or accompanying
             1479      documents for purposes other than collection, the security interest continues to that extent and is
             1480      subject to Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured Transactions, but:
             1481          (a) no security agreement is necessary to make the security interest enforceable, Subsection
             1482      [ 70A-9-203 (1)(a)] 70A-9a-203 (2)(c)(i);
             1483          (b) no filing is required to perfect the security interest; and
             1484          (c) the security interest has priority over conflicting perfected security interests in the item,


             1485      accompanying documents, or proceeds.
             1486          Section 29. Section 70A-5-114 is amended to read:
             1487           70A-5-114. Assignment of proceeds.
             1488          (1) In this section, "proceeds of a letter of credit" means the cash, check, accepted draft,
             1489      or other item of value paid or delivered upon honor or giving of value by the issuer or any
             1490      nominated person under the letter of credit. The term does not include a beneficiary's drawing
             1491      rights or documents presented by the beneficiary.
             1492          (2) A beneficiary may assign its right to part or all of the proceeds of a letter of credit. The
             1493      beneficiary may do so before presentation as a present assignment of its right to receive proceeds
             1494      contingent upon its compliance with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit.
             1495          (3) An issuer or nominated person need not recognize an assignment of proceeds of a letter
             1496      of credit until it consents to the assignment.
             1497          (4) An issuer or nominated person has no obligation to give or withhold its consent to an
             1498      assignment of proceeds of a letter of credit, but consent may not be unreasonably withheld if the
             1499      assignee possesses and exhibits the letter of credit and presentation of the letter of credit is a
             1500      condition to honor.
             1501          (5) Rights of a transferee beneficiary or nominated person are independent of the
             1502      beneficiary's assignment of the proceeds of a letter of credit and are superior to the assignee's right
             1503      to the proceeds.
             1504          (6) Neither the rights recognized by this section between an assignee and an issuer,
             1505      transferee beneficiary, or nominated person nor the issuer's or nominated person's payment of
             1506      proceeds to an assignee or a third person affect the rights between the assignee and any person
             1507      other than the issuer, transferee beneficiary, or nominated person. The mode of creating and
             1508      perfecting a security interest in or granting an assignment of a beneficiary's rights to proceeds is
             1509      governed by Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code -- Secured Transactions, or other
             1510      law. Against persons other than the issuer, transferee beneficiary, or nominated person, the rights
             1511      and obligations arising upon the creation of a security interest or other assignment of a
             1512      beneficiary's right to proceeds and its perfection are governed by Title 70A, Chapter 9a, Uniform
             1513      Commercial Code -- Secured Transactions, or other law.
             1514          Section 30. Section 70A-5-118 is repealed and reenacted to read:
             1515          70A-5-118. Security interest of issuer or nominated person.


             1516          (1) An issuer or nominated person has a security interest in a document presented under
             1517      a letter of credit to the extent that the issuer or nominated person honors or gives value for the
             1518      presentation.
             1519          (2) So long as and to the extent that an issuer or nominated person has not been reimbursed
             1520      or has not otherwise recovered the value given with respect to a security interest in a document
             1521      under Subsection (1), the security interest continues and is subject to Chapter 9, but:
             1522          (a) a security agreement is not necessary to make the security interest enforceable under
             1523      Subsection 70A-9a-203 (2)(c);
             1524          (b) if the document is presented in a medium other than a written or other tangible
             1525      medium, the security interest is perfected; and
             1526          (c) if the document is presented in a written or other tangible medium and is not a
             1527      certificated security, chattel paper, a document of title, an instrument, or a letter of credit, the
             1528      security interest is perfected and has priority over a conflicting security interest in the document
             1529      so long as the debtor does not have possession of the document.
             1530          Section 31. Section 70A-5-119 is repealed and reenacted to read:
             1531          70A-5-119. Applicability.
             1532          This act applies to a letter of credit that is issued on or after July 1, 1997. This act does not
             1533      apply to a transaction, event, obligation, or duty arising out of or associated with a letter of credit
             1534      that was issued before July 1, 1997.
             1535          Section 32. Section 70A-5-120 is enacted to read:
             1536          70A-5-120. Savings clause.
             1537          A transaction arising out of or associated with a letter of credit that was issued before July
             1538      1, 1997, and the rights, obligations, and interests flowing from that transaction are governed by any
             1539      statute or other law amended or repealed by this act as if repeal or amendment had not occurred
             1540      and may be terminated, completed, consummated, or enforced under that statute or other law.
             1541          Section 33. Section 70A-7-503 is amended to read:
             1542           70A-7-503. Document of title to goods defeated in certain cases.
             1543          (1) A document of title confers no right in goods against a person who before issuance of
             1544      the document had a legal interest or a perfected security interest in them and who neither
             1545          (a) delivered or entrusted them or any document of title covering them to the bailor or his
             1546      nominee with actual or apparent authority to ship, store or sell or with power to obtain delivery


             1547      under this chapter (Section 70A-7-403 ) or with power of disposition under this act (Sections
             1548      70A-2-403 and [ 70A-9-307 ] 70A-9a-320 ) or other statute or rule of law; nor
             1549          (b) acquiesced in the procurement by the bailor or his nominee of any document of title.
             1550          (2) Title to goods based upon an unaccepted delivery order is subject to the rights of
             1551      anyone to whom a negotiable warehouse receipt or bill of lading covering the goods has been duly
             1552      negotiated. Such a title may be defeated under the next section to the same extent as the rights of
             1553      the issuer or a transferee from the issuer.
             1554          (3) Title to goods based upon a bill of lading issued to a freight forwarder is subject to the
             1555      rights of anyone to whom a bill issued by the freight forwarder is duly negotiated; but delivery by
             1556      the carrier in accordance with Part 4 of this chapter pursuant to its own bill of lading discharges
             1557      the carrier's obligation to deliver.
             1558          Section 34. Section 70A-8-102 is amended to read:
             1559           70A-8-102. Rules for determining whether certain obligations and interests are
             1560      securities or financial assets.
             1561          (1) A share or similar equity interest issued by a corporation, business trust, joint stock
             1562      company, or similar entity is a security.
             1563          (2) An "investment company security" is a security. "Investment company security" means
             1564      a share or similar equity interest issued by an entity that is registered as an investment company
             1565      under the federal investment company laws, an interest in a unit investment trust that is so
             1566      registered, or a face-amount certificate issued by a face-amount certificate company that is so
             1567      registered. Investment company security does not include an insurance policy or endowment
             1568      policy or annuity contract issued by an insurance company.
             1569          (3) An interest in a partnership or limited liability company is not a security unless it is
             1570      dealt in or traded on securities exchanges or in securities markets, its terms expressly provide that
             1571      it is a security governed by this chapter, or it is an investment company security. However, an
             1572      interest in a partnership or limited liability company is a financial asset if it is held in a securities
             1573      account.
             1574          (4) A writing that is a security certificate is governed by this chapter and not by Chapter
             1575      3, even though it also meets the requirements of that chapter. However, a negotiable instrument
             1576      governed by Chapter 3 is a financial asset if it is held in a securities account.
             1577          (5) An option or similar obligation issued by a clearing corporation to its participants is


             1578      not a security, but is a financial asset.
             1579          (6) A commodity contract, as defined in [Section 70A-9-114 ] Subsection 70A-9a-102 (15),
             1580      is not a security or a financial asset.
             1581          Section 35. Section 70A-8-105 is amended to read:
             1582           70A-8-105. Control.
             1583          (1) A purchaser has "control" of a certificated security in bearer form if the certificated
             1584      security is delivered to the purchaser.
             1585          (2) A purchaser has "control" of a certificated security in registered form if the certificated
             1586      security is delivered to the purchaser, and:
             1587          (a) the certificate is indorsed to the purchaser or in blank by an effective indorsement; or
             1588          (b) the certificate is registered in the name of the purchaser, upon original issue or
             1589      registration of transfer by the issuer.
             1590          (3) A purchaser has "control" of an uncertificated security if:
             1591          (a) the uncertificated security is delivered to the purchaser; or
             1592          (b) the issuer has agreed that it will comply with instructions originated by the purchaser
             1593      without further consent by the registered owner.
             1594          (4) A purchaser has "control" of a security entitlement if:
             1595          (a) the purchaser becomes the entitlement holder; [or]
             1596          (b) the securities intermediary has agreed that it will comply with entitlement orders
             1597      originated by the purchaser without further consent by the entitlement holder[.]; or
             1598          (c) another person has control of the security entitlement on behalf of the purchaser or,
             1599      having previously acquired control of the security entitlement, acknowledges that it has control on
             1600      behalf of the purchaser.
             1601          (5) If an interest in a security entitlement is granted by the entitlement holder to the
             1602      entitlement holder's own securities intermediary, the securities intermediary has control.
             1603          (6) A purchaser who has satisfied the requirements of Subsection (3)(b) or (4)(b) has
             1604      control even if the registered owner in the case of Subsection (3)(b) or the entitlement holder in
             1605      the case of Subsection (4)(b) retains the right to make substitutions for the uncertificated security
             1606      or security entitlement, to originate instructions or entitlement orders to the issuer or securities
             1607      intermediary, or otherwise to deal with the uncertificated security or security entitlement.
             1608          (7) An issuer or a securities intermediary may not enter into an agreement of the kind


             1609      described in Subsection (3)(b) or (4)(b) without the consent of the registered owner or entitlement
             1610      holder, but an issuer or a securities intermediary is not required to enter into such an agreement
             1611      even though the registered owner or entitlement holder so directs. An issuer or securities
             1612      intermediary that has entered into such an agreement is not required to confirm the existence of
             1613      the agreement to another party unless requested to do so by the registered owner or entitlement
             1614      holder.
             1615          Section 36. Section 70A-8-109 is amended to read:
             1616           70A-8-109. Applicability -- Choice of law.
             1617          (1) The local law of the issuer's jurisdiction, as specified in Subsection (4), governs:
             1618          (a) the validity of a security;
             1619          (b) the rights and duties of the issuer with respect to registration of transfer;
             1620          (c) the effectiveness of registration of transfer by the issuer;
             1621          (d) whether the issuer owes any duties to an adverse claimant to a security; and
             1622          (e) whether an adverse claim can be asserted against a person to whom transfer of a
             1623      certificated or uncertificated security is registered or a person who obtains control of an
             1624      uncertificated security.
             1625          (2) The local law of the securities intermediary's jurisdiction, as specified in Subsection
             1626      (5), governs:
             1627          (a) acquisition of a security entitlement from the securities intermediary;
             1628          (b) the rights and duties of the securities intermediary and entitlement holder arising out
             1629      of a security entitlement;
             1630          (c) whether the securities intermediary owes any duties to an adverse claimant to a security
             1631      entitlement; and
             1632          (d) whether an adverse claim can be asserted against a person who acquires a security
             1633      entitlement from the securities intermediary or a person who purchases a security entitlement or
             1634      interest therein from an entitlement holder.
             1635          (3) The local law of the jurisdiction in which a security certificate is located at the time
             1636      of delivery governs whether an adverse claim can be asserted against a person to whom the security
             1637      certificate is delivered.
             1638          (4) "Issuer's jurisdiction" means the jurisdiction under which the issuer of the security is
             1639      organized or, if permitted by the law of that jurisdiction, the law of another jurisdiction specified


             1640      by the issuer. An issuer organized under the law of this state may specify the law of another
             1641      jurisdiction as the law governing the matters specified in Subsections (1)(b) through (e).
             1642          (5) The following rules determine a "securities intermediary's jurisdiction" for purposes
             1643      of this section:
             1644          (a) If an agreement between the securities intermediary and its entitlement holder
             1645      [specifies that it is governed by the law of a particular jurisdiction] governing the securities
             1646      account expressly provides that a particular jurisdiction is the securities intermediary's jurisdiction
             1647      for purposes of this part, this chapter, or this title, that jurisdiction is the securities intermediary's
             1648      jurisdiction.
             1649          (b) If Subsection (5)(a) does not apply and an agreement between the securities
             1650      intermediary and its entitlement holder governing the securities account expressly provides that
             1651      the agreement is governed by the law of a particular jurisdiction, that jurisdiction is the securities
             1652      intermediary's jurisdiction.
             1653          [(b)] (c) If neither Subsection (5)(a) nor Subsection (5)(b) applies and an agreement
             1654      between the securities intermediary and its entitlement holder [does not specify the governing law
             1655      as provided in Subsection (a), but] governing the securities account expressly [specifies] provides
             1656      that the securities account is maintained at an office in a particular jurisdiction, that jurisdiction
             1657      is the securities intermediary's jurisdiction.
             1658          [(c)] (d) If [an agreement between the securities intermediary and its entitlement holder
             1659      does not specify a jurisdiction as provided in Subsection (a) or (b)] Subsections (5)(a) through (c)
             1660      do not apply, the securities intermediary's jurisdiction is the jurisdiction in which [is located] the
             1661      office identified in an account statement as the office serving the entitlement holder's account is
             1662      located.
             1663          [(d)] (e) If [an agreement between the securities intermediary and its entitlement holder
             1664      does not specify a jurisdiction as provided in Subsection (a) or (b) and an account statement does
             1665      not identify an office serving the entitlement holder's account as provided in Subsection (c)]
             1666      Subsections (5)(a) through (d) do not apply, the securities intermediary's jurisdiction is the
             1667      jurisdiction in which [is located] the chief executive office of the securities intermediary is located.
             1668          (6) A securities intermediary's jurisdiction is not determined by the physical location of
             1669      certificates representing financial assets, or by the jurisdiction in which is organized the issuer of
             1670      the financial asset with respect to which an entitlement holder has a security entitlement, or by the


             1671      location of facilities for data processing or other record keeping concerning the account.
             1672          Section 37. Section 70A-8-301 is amended to read:
             1673           70A-8-301. Delivery.
             1674          (1) Delivery of a certificated security to a purchaser occurs when:
             1675          (a) the purchaser acquires possession of the security certificate;
             1676          (b) another person, other than a securities intermediary, either acquires possession of the
             1677      security certificate on behalf of the purchaser or, having previously acquired possession of the
             1678      certificate, acknowledges that it holds for the purchaser; or
             1679          (c) a securities intermediary acting on behalf of the purchaser acquires possession of the
             1680      security certificate, only if the certificate is in registered form and [has been] is:
             1681          (i) registered in the name of the purchaser;
             1682          (ii) payable to the order of the purchaser; or
             1683          (iii) specially indorsed to the purchaser by an effective indorsement and has not been
             1684      indorsed to the securities intermediary or in blank.
             1685          (2) Delivery of an uncertificated security to a purchaser occurs when:
             1686          (a) the issuer registers the purchaser as the registered owner, upon original issue or
             1687      registration of transfer; or
             1688          (b) another person, other than a securities intermediary, either becomes the registered
             1689      owner of the uncertificated security on behalf of the purchaser or, having previously become the
             1690      registered owner, acknowledges that it holds for the purchaser.
             1691          Section 38. Section 70A-8-302 is amended to read:
             1692           70A-8-302. Rights of purchaser.
             1693          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Subsections (2) and (3), [upon delivery] a purchaser
             1694      of a certificated or uncertificated security [to a purchaser, the purchaser] acquires all rights in the
             1695      security that the transferor had or had power to transfer.
             1696          (2) A purchaser of a limited interest acquires rights only to the extent of the interest
             1697      purchased.
             1698          (3) A purchaser of a certificated security who as a previous holder had notice of an adverse
             1699      claim does not improve its position by taking from a protected purchaser.
             1700          Section 39. Section 70A-8-510 is amended to read:
             1701           70A-8-510. Rights of purchaser of security entitlement from entitlement holder.


             1702          (1) [An] In a case not covered by the priority rules in Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial
             1703      Code -- Secured Transactions, or the rules stated in Subsection (3), an action based on an adverse
             1704      claim to a financial asset or security entitlement, whether framed in conversion, replevin,
             1705      constructive trust, equitable lien, or other theory, may not be asserted against a person who
             1706      purchases a security entitlement, or an interest therein, from an entitlement holder if the purchaser
             1707      gives value, does not have notice of the adverse claim, and obtains control.
             1708          (2) If an adverse claim could not have been asserted against an entitlement holder under
             1709      Section 70A-8-502 , the adverse claim cannot be asserted against a person who purchases a security
             1710      entitlement, or an interest therein, from the entitlement holder.
             1711          (3) In a case not covered by the priority rules in Chapter 9a, Uniform Commercial Code
             1712      -- Secured Transactions, a purchaser for value of a security entitlement, or an interest therein, who
             1713      obtains control has priority over a purchaser of a security entitlement, or an interest therein, who
             1714      does not obtain control. [Purchasers] Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (4), purchasers
             1715      who have control rank [equally, except that a] according to priority in time of:
             1716          (a) the purchaser's becoming the person for whom the securities account, in which the
             1717      security entitlement is carried, is maintained, if the purchaser obtained control under Subsection
             1718      70A-8-105 (4)(a);
             1719          (b) the securities intermediary's agreement to comply with the purchaser's entitlement
             1720      orders with respect to security entitlements carried or to be carried in the securities account in
             1721      which the security entitlement is carried, if the purchaser obtained control under Subsection
             1722      70A-8-105 (4)(b); or
             1723          (c) if the purchaser obtained control through another person under Subsection
             1724      70A-8-105 (4)(c), the time on which priority would be based under this subsection if the other
             1725      person were the secured party.
             1726          (4) A securities intermediary as purchaser has priority over a conflicting purchaser who
             1727      has control unless otherwise agreed by the securities intermediary.
             1728          Section 40. Section 70A-9a-101 is enacted to read:
             1729     
CHAPTER 9a. UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE -- SECURED TRANSACTIONS

             1730     
Part 1. General Provisions

             1731          70A-9a-101. Title.
             1732          This chapter may be cited as Uniform Commercial Code_Secured Transactions.


             1733          Section 41. Section 70A-9a-102 is enacted to read:
             1734          70A-9a-102. Definitions and index of definitions.
             1735          In this chapter:
             1736          (1) "Accession" means goods that are physically united with other goods in such a manner
             1737      that the identity of the original goods is not lost.
             1738          (2) (a) "Account," except as used in "account for," means a right to payment of a monetary
             1739      obligation, whether or not earned by performance:
             1740          (i) for property that has been or is to be sold, leased, licensed, assigned, or otherwise
             1741      disposed of;
             1742          (ii) for services rendered or to be rendered;
             1743          (iii) for a policy of insurance issued or to be issued;
             1744          (iv) for a secondary obligation incurred or to be incurred;
             1745          (v) for energy provided or to be provided;
             1746          (vi) for the use or hire of a vessel under a charter or other contract;
             1747          (vii) arising out of the use of a credit or charge card or information contained on or for use
             1748      with the card; or
             1749          (viii) as winnings in a lottery or other game of chance operated or sponsored by a state,
             1750      governmental unit of a state, or person licensed or authorized to operate the game by a state or
             1751      governmental unit of a state.
             1752          (b) "Account" includes health-care-insurance receivables.
             1753          (c) "Account" does not include:
             1754          (i) rights to payment evidenced by chattel paper or an instrument;
             1755          (ii) commercial tort claims;
             1756          (iii) deposit accounts;
             1757          (iv) investment property;
             1758          (v) letter-of-credit rights or letters of credit; or
             1759          (vi) rights to payment for money or funds advanced or sold, other than rights arising out
             1760      of the use of a credit or charge card or information contained on or for use with the card.
             1761          (3) (a) "Account debtor" means a person obligated on an account, chattel paper, or general
             1762      intangible.
             1763          (b) "Account debtor" does not include persons obligated to pay a negotiable instrument,


             1764      even if the instrument constitutes part of chattel paper.
             1765          (4) "Accounting," except as used in "accounting for," means a record:
             1766          (a) authenticated by a secured party;
             1767          (b) indicating the aggregate unpaid secured obligations as of a date not more than 35 days
             1768      earlier or 35 days later than the date of the record; and
             1769          (c) identifying the components of the obligations in reasonable detail.
             1770          (5) "Agricultural lien" means an interest, other than a security interest, in farm products:
             1771          (a) which secures payment or performance of an obligation for:
             1772          (i) goods or services furnished in connection with a debtor's farming operation; or
             1773          (ii) rent on real property leased by a debtor in connection with its farming operation;
             1774          (b) which is created by statute in favor of a person that:
             1775          (i) in the ordinary course of its business furnished goods or services to a debtor in
             1776      connection with a debtor's farming operation; or
             1777          (ii) leased real property to a debtor in connection with the debtor's farming operation; and
             1778          (c) whose effectiveness does not depend on the person's possession of the personal
             1779      property.
             1780          (6) "As-extracted collateral" means:
             1781          (a) oil, gas, or other minerals that are subject to a security interest that:
             1782          (i) is created by a debtor having an interest in the minerals before extraction; and
             1783          (ii) attaches to the minerals as extracted; or
             1784          (b) accounts arising out of the sale at the wellhead or minehead of oil, gas, or other
             1785      minerals in which the debtor had an interest before extraction.
             1786          (7) "Authenticate" means:
             1787          (a) to sign; or
             1788          (b) to execute or otherwise adopt a symbol, or encrypt or similarly process a record in
             1789      whole or in part, with the present intent of the authenticating person to identify the person and
             1790      adopt or accept a record.
             1791          (8) (a) "Bank" means an organization that is engaged in the business of banking.
             1792          (b) "Bank" includes:
             1793          (i) a depository institution as defined in Section 7-1-103 ; and
             1794          (ii) a trust company.


             1795          (9) "Cash proceeds" means proceeds that are money, checks, deposit accounts, or the like.
             1796          (10) "Certificate of title" means a certificate of title with respect to which a statute
             1797      provides for the security interest in question to be indicated on the certificate as a condition or
             1798      result of the security interest's obtaining priority over the rights of a lien creditor with respect to
             1799      the collateral.
             1800          (11) (a) "Chattel paper" means a record or records that evidence both a monetary
             1801      obligation and a security interest in specific goods, a security interest in specific goods and
             1802      software used in the goods, a security interest in specific goods and license of software used in the
             1803      goods, a lease of specific goods, or a lease of specific goods and license of software used in the
             1804      goods. In this Subsection (11), "monetary obligation" means a monetary obligation secured by the
             1805      goods or owed under a lease of the goods and includes a monetary obligation with respect to
             1806      software used in the goods.
             1807          (b) "Chattel paper" does not include:
             1808          (i) charters or other contracts involving the use or hire of a vessel; or
             1809          (ii) records that evidence a right to payment arising out of the use of a credit or charge card
             1810      or information contained or for use with the card.
             1811          (c) If a transaction is evidenced by records that include an instrument or series of
             1812      instruments, the group of records taken together constitutes chattel paper.
             1813          (12) "Collateral" means the property subject to a security interest or agricultural lien.
             1814      "Collateral" includes:
             1815          (a) proceeds to which a security interest attaches;
             1816          (b) accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, and promissory notes that have been sold;
             1817      and
             1818          (c) goods that are the subject of a consignment.
             1819          (13) "Commercial tort claim" means a claim arising in tort with respect to which:
             1820          (a) the claimant is an organization; or
             1821          (b) the claimant is an individual and the claim:
             1822          (i) arose in the course of the claimant's business or profession; and
             1823          (ii) does not include damages arising out of personal injury to or the death of an individual.
             1824          (14) "Commodity account" means an account maintained by a commodity intermediary
             1825      in which a commodity contract is carried for a commodity customer.


             1826          (15) "Commodity contract" means a commodity futures contract, an option on a
             1827      commodity futures contract, a commodity option, or another contract if the contract or option is:
             1828          (a) traded on or subject to the rules of a board of trade that has been designated as a
             1829      contract market for such a contract pursuant to federal commodities laws; or
             1830          (b) traded on a foreign commodity board of trade, exchange, or market, and is carried on
             1831      the books of a commodity intermediary for a commodity customer.
             1832          (16) "Commodity customer" means a person for which a commodity intermediary carries
             1833      a commodity contract on its books.
             1834          (17) "Commodity intermediary" means a person that:
             1835          (a) is registered as a futures commission merchant under federal commodities law; or
             1836          (b) in the ordinary course of its business provides clearance or settlement services for a
             1837      board of trade that has been designated as a contract market pursuant to federal commodities law.
             1838          (18) "Communicate" means:
             1839          (a) to send a written or other tangible record;
             1840          (b) to transmit a record by any means agreed upon by the persons sending and receiving
             1841      the record; or
             1842          (c) in the case of transmission of a record to or by a filing office, to transmit a record by
             1843      any means prescribed by filing-office rule.
             1844          (19) "Consignee" means a merchant to which goods are delivered in a consignment.
             1845          (20) "Consignment" means a transaction, regardless of its form, in which a person delivers
             1846      goods to a merchant for the purpose of sale and:
             1847          (a) the merchant:
             1848          (i) deals in goods of that kind under a name other than the name of the person making
             1849      delivery;
             1850          (ii) is not an auctioneer; and
             1851          (iii) is not generally known by its creditors to be substantially engaged in selling the goods
             1852      of others;
             1853          (b) with respect to each delivery, the aggregate value of the goods is $1,000 or more at the
             1854      time of delivery;
             1855          (c) the goods are not consumer goods immediately before delivery; and
             1856          (d) the transaction does not create a security interest that secures an obligation.


             1857          (21) "Consignor" means a person that delivers goods to a consignee in a consignment.
             1858          (22) "Consumer debtor" means a debtor in a consumer transaction.
             1859          (23) "Consumer goods" means goods that are used or bought for use primarily for
             1860      personal, family, or household purposes.
             1861          (24) "Consumer-goods transaction" means a consumer transaction in which:
             1862          (a) an individual incurs an obligation primarily for personal, family, or household
             1863      purposes; and
             1864          (b) a security interest in consumer goods secures the obligation.
             1865          (25) "Consumer obligor" means an obligor who is an individual and who incurred the
             1866      obligation as part of a transaction entered into primarily for personal, family, or household
             1867      purposes.
             1868          (26) (a) "Consumer transaction" means a transaction in which:
             1869          (i) an individual incurs an obligation primarily for personal, family, or household purposes;
             1870          (ii) a security interest secures the obligation; and
             1871          (iii) the collateral is held or acquired primarily for personal, family, or household purposes.
             1872          (b) "Consumer transaction" includes consumer-goods transactions.
             1873          (27) "Continuation statement" means an amendment of a financing statement which:
             1874          (a) identifies, by its file number, the initial financing statement to which it relates; and
             1875          (b) indicates that it is a continuation statement for, or that it is filed to continue the
             1876      effectiveness of, the identified financing statement.
             1877          (28) "Debtor" means:
             1878          (a) a person having an interest, other than a security interest or other lien, in the collateral,
             1879      whether or not the person is an obligor;
             1880          (b) a seller of accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes; or
             1881          (c) a consignee.
             1882          (29) (a) "Deposit account" means a demand, time, savings, passbook, or similar account
             1883      maintained with a bank.
             1884          (b) "Deposit account" does not include investment property or accounts evidenced by an
             1885      instrument.
             1886          (30) "Document" means a document of title or a receipt of the type described in Subsection
             1887      70A-7-201 (2).


             1888          (31) "Electronic chattel paper" means chattel paper evidenced by a record or records
             1889      consisting of information stored in an electronic medium.
             1890          (32) "Encumbrance" means a right, other than an ownership interest, in real property.
             1891      "Encumbrance" includes mortgages and other liens on real property.
             1892          (33) "Equipment" means goods other than inventory, farm products, or consumer goods.
             1893          (34) "Farm products" means goods, other than standing timber, with respect to which the
             1894      debtor is engaged in a farming operation and which are:
             1895          (a) crops grown, growing, or to be grown, including:
             1896          (i) crops produced on trees, vines, and bushes; and
             1897          (ii) aquatic goods produced in aquacultural operations;
             1898          (b) livestock, born or unborn, including aquatic goods produced in aquacultural operations;
             1899          (c) supplies used or produced in a farming operation; or
             1900          (d) products of crops or livestock in their unmanufactured states.
             1901          (35) "Farming operation" means raising, cultivating, propagating, fattening, grazing, or
             1902      any other farming, livestock, or aquacultural operation.
             1903          (36) "File number" means the number assigned to an initial financing statement pursuant
             1904      to Subsection 70A-9a-519 (1).
             1905          (37) "Filing office" means an office designated in Section 70A-9a-501 as the place to file
             1906      a financing statement.
             1907          (38) "Filing-office rule" means a rule adopted pursuant to Section 70A-9a-526 .
             1908          (39) "Financing statement" means a record or records composed of an initial financing
             1909      statement and any filed record relating to the initial financing statement.
             1910          (40) (a) "Fixture filing" means the filing of a financing statement covering goods that are
             1911      or are to become fixtures and satisfying Subsections 70A-9a-502 (1) and (2).
             1912          (b) "Fixture filing" includes the filing of a financing statement covering goods of a
             1913      transmitting utility which are or are to become fixtures.
             1914          (41) "Fixtures" means goods that have become so related to particular real property that
             1915      an interest in them arises under real property law.
             1916          (42) (a) "General intangible" means any personal property, including things in action, other
             1917      than accounts, chattel paper, commercial tort claims, deposit accounts, documents, goods,
             1918      instruments, investment property, letter-of-credit rights, letters of credit, money, and oil, gas, or


             1919      other minerals before extraction.
             1920          (b) "General intangible" includes payment intangibles and software.
             1921          (43) "Good faith" means honesty in fact and the observance of reasonable commercial
             1922      standards of fair dealing.
             1923          (44) (a) "Goods" means all things that are movable when a security interest attaches.
             1924          (b) "Goods" includes:
             1925          (i) fixtures;
             1926          (ii) standing timber that is to be cut and removed under a conveyance or contract for sale;
             1927          (iii) the unborn young of animals;
             1928          (iv) crops grown, growing, or to be grown, even if the crops are produced on trees, vines,
             1929      or bushes; and
             1930          (v) manufactured homes.
             1931          (c) "Goods" also includes a computer program embedded in goods and any supporting
             1932      information provided in connection with a transaction relating to the program if:
             1933          (i) the program is associated with the goods in such a manner that it customarily is
             1934      considered part of the goods; or
             1935          (ii) by becoming the owner of the goods, a person acquires a right to use the program in
             1936      connection with the goods.
             1937          (d) "Goods" does not include a computer program embedded in goods that consist solely
             1938      of the medium in which the program is embedded.
             1939          (e) "Goods" also does not include accounts, chattel paper, commercial tort claims, deposit
             1940      accounts, documents, general intangibles, instruments, investment property, letter-of-credit rights,
             1941      letters of credit, money, or oil, gas, or other minerals before extraction.
             1942          (45) (a) "Governmental unit" means a subdivision, agency, department, county, parish,
             1943      municipality, or other unit of the government of the United States, a state, or a foreign country.
             1944          (b) "Governmental unit" includes an organization having a separate corporate existence
             1945      if the organization is eligible to issue debt on which interest is exempt from income taxation under
             1946      the laws of the United States.
             1947          (46) "Health-care-insurance receivable" means an interest in or claim under a policy of
             1948      insurance which is a right to payment of a monetary obligation for health-care goods or services
             1949      provided.


             1950          (47) (a) "Instrument" means a negotiable instrument or any other writing that evidences
             1951      a right to the payment of a monetary obligation, is not itself a security agreement or lease, and is
             1952      of a type that in ordinary course of business is transferred by delivery with any necessary
             1953      indorsement or assignment.
             1954          (b) "Instrument" does not include:
             1955          (i) investment property;
             1956          (ii) letters of credit; or
             1957          (iii) writings that evidence a right to payment arising out of the use of a credit or charge
             1958      card or information contained on or for use with the card.
             1959          (48) "Inventory" means goods, other than farm products, which:
             1960          (a) are leased by a person as lessor;
             1961          (b) are held by a person for sale or lease or to be furnished under a contract of service;
             1962          (c) are furnished by a person under a contract of service; or
             1963          (d) consist of raw materials, work in process, or materials used or consumed in a business.
             1964          (49) "Investment property" means a security, whether certificated or uncertificated,
             1965      security entitlement, securities account, commodity contract, or commodity account.
             1966          (50) "Jurisdiction of organization," with respect to a registered organization, means the
             1967      jurisdiction under whose law the organization is organized.
             1968          (51) (a) "Letter-of-credit right" means a right to payment or performance under a letter of
             1969      credit, whether or not the beneficiary has demanded or is at the time entitled to demand payment
             1970      or performance.
             1971          (b) "Letter-of-credit right" does not include the right of a beneficiary to demand payment
             1972      or performance under a letter of credit.
             1973          (52) "Lien creditor" means:
             1974          (a) a creditor that has acquired a lien on the property involved by attachment, levy, or the
             1975      like;
             1976          (b) an assignee for benefit of creditors from the time of assignment;
             1977          (c) a trustee in bankruptcy from the date of the filing of the petition; or
             1978          (d) a receiver in equity from the time of appointment.
             1979          (53) (a) "Manufactured home" means a structure, transportable in one or more sections,
             1980      which, in the traveling mode, is eight body feet or more in width or 40 body feet or more in length,


             1981      or, when erected on site, is 320 or more square feet, and which is built on a permanent chassis and
             1982      designed to be used as a dwelling with or without a permanent foundation when connected to the
             1983      required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning, and electrical systems
             1984      contained therein.
             1985          (b) "Manufactured home" includes any structure that meets all of the requirements of this
             1986      Subsection (53) except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer
             1987      voluntarily files a certification required by the United States Secretary of Housing and Urban
             1988      Development and complies with the standards established under Title 42 of the United States
             1989      Code.
             1990          (54) "Manufactured-home transaction" means a secured transaction:
             1991          (a) that creates a purchase-money security interest in a manufactured home, other than a
             1992      manufactured home held as inventory; or
             1993          (b) in which a manufactured home, other than a manufactured home held as inventory, is
             1994      the primary collateral.
             1995          (55) "Mortgage" means a consensual interest in real property, including fixtures, which
             1996      secures payment or performance of an obligation.
             1997          (56) "New debtor" means a person that becomes bound as debtor under Subsection
             1998      70A-9a-203 (4) by a security agreement previously entered into by another person.
             1999          (57) (a) "New value" means:
             2000          (i) money;
             2001          (ii) money's worth in property, services, or new credit; or
             2002          (iii) release by a transferee of an interest in property previously transferred to the
             2003      transferee.
             2004          (b) "New value" does not include an obligation substituted for another obligation.
             2005          (58) "Noncash proceeds" means proceeds other than cash proceeds.
             2006          (59) (a) "Obligor" means a person that, with respect to an obligation secured by a security
             2007      interest in or an agricultural lien on the collateral:
             2008          (i) owes payment or other performance of the obligation;
             2009          (ii) has provided property other than the collateral to secure payment or other performance
             2010      of the obligation; or
             2011          (iii) is otherwise accountable in whole or in part for payment or other performance of the


             2012      obligation.
             2013          (b) "Obligor" does not include issuers or nominated persons under a letter of credit.
             2014          (60) "Original debtor," except as used in Subsection 70A-9a-310 (3), means a person that,
             2015      as debtor, entered into a security agreement to which a new debtor has become bound under
             2016      Subsection 70A-9a-203 (4).
             2017          (61) "Payment intangible" means a general intangible under which the account debtor's
             2018      principal obligation is a monetary obligation.
             2019          (62) "Person related to," with respect to an individual, means:
             2020          (a) the spouse of the individual;
             2021          (b) a brother, brother-in-law, sister, or sister-in-law of the individual;
             2022          (c) an ancestor or lineal descendant of the individual or the individual's spouse; or
             2023          (d) any other relative, by blood or marriage, of the individual or the individual's spouse
             2024      who shares the same home with the individual.
             2025          (63) "Person related to," with respect to an organization, means:
             2026          (a) a person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with
             2027      the organization;
             2028          (b) an officer or director of, or a person performing similar functions with respect to, the
             2029      organization;
             2030          (c) an officer or director of, or a person performing similar functions with respect to, a
             2031      person described in Subsection (63)(a);
             2032          (d) the spouse of an individual described in Subsection (63)(a), (b), or (c); or
             2033          (e) an individual who is related by blood or marriage to an individual described in
             2034      Subsection (63)(a), (b), (c), or (d) and shares the same home with the individual.
             2035          (64) "Proceeds," except as used in Subsection 70A-9a-609 (2), means the following
             2036      property:
             2037          (a) whatever is acquired upon the sale, lease, license, exchange, or other disposition of
             2038      collateral;
             2039          (b) whatever is collected on, or distributed on account of, collateral;
             2040          (c) rights arising out of collateral;
             2041          (d) to the extent of the value of collateral, claims arising out of the loss, nonconformity,
             2042      or interference with the use of, defects or infringement of rights in, or damage to, the collateral;


             2043      or
             2044          (e) to the extent of the value of collateral and to the extent payable to the debtor or the
             2045      secured party, insurance payable by reason of the loss or nonconformity of, defects or infringement
             2046      of rights in, or damage to, the collateral.
             2047          (65) "Promissory note" means an instrument that evidences a promise to pay a monetary
             2048      obligation, does not evidence an order to pay, and does not contain an acknowledgment by a bank
             2049      that the bank has received for deposit a sum of money or funds.
             2050          (66) "Proposal" means a record authenticated by a secured party which includes the terms
             2051      on which the secured party is willing to accept collateral in full or partial satisfaction of the
             2052      obligation it secures pursuant to Sections 70A-9a-620 , 70A-9a-621 , and 70A-9a-622 .
             2053          (67) "Public-finance transaction" means a secured transaction in connection with which:
             2054          (a) debt securities are issued;
             2055          (b) all or a portion of the securities issued have an initial stated maturity of at least 20
             2056      years; and
             2057          (c) the debtor, obligor, secured party, account debtor or other person obligated on
             2058      collateral, assignor or assignee of a secured obligation, or assignor or assignee of a security interest
             2059      is a state or a governmental unit of a state.
             2060          (68) "Pursuant to commitment," with respect to an advance made or other value given by
             2061      a secured party, means pursuant to the secured party's obligation, whether or not a subsequent
             2062      event of default or other event not within the secured party's control has relieved or may relieve
             2063      the secured party from its obligation.
             2064          (69) "Record," except as used in "for record," "of record," "record or legal title," and
             2065      "record owner," means information that is inscribed on a tangible medium or which is stored in
             2066      an electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.
             2067          (70) "Registered organization" means an organization organized solely under the law of
             2068      a single state or the United States and as to which the state or the United States must maintain a
             2069      public record showing the organization to have been organized.
             2070          (71) "Secondary obligor" means an obligor to the extent that:
             2071          (a) the obligor's obligation is secondary; or
             2072          (b) the obligor has a right of recourse with respect to an obligation secured by collateral
             2073      against the debtor, another obligor, or property of either.


             2074          (72) "Secured party" means:
             2075          (a) a person in whose favor a security interest is created or provided for under a security
             2076      agreement, whether or not any obligation to be secured is outstanding;
             2077          (b) a person that holds an agricultural lien;
             2078          (c) a consignor;
             2079          (d) a person to which accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes
             2080      have been sold;
             2081          (e) a trustee, indenture trustee, agent, collateral agent, or other representative in whose
             2082      favor a security interest or agricultural lien is created or provided for; or
             2083          (f) a person that holds a security interest arising under Section 70A-2-401 , 70A-2-505 ,
             2084      70A-4-210 , or 70A-5-118 or Subsection 70A-2-711 (3) or 70A-2a-508 (5).
             2085          (73) "Security agreement" means an agreement that creates or provides for a security
             2086      interest.
             2087          (74) "Send," in connection with a record or notification, means:
             2088          (a) to deposit in the mail, deliver for transmission, or transmit by any other usual means
             2089      of communication, with postage or cost of transmission provided for, addressed to any address
             2090      reasonable under the circumstances; or
             2091          (b) to cause the record or notification to be received within the time that it would have
             2092      been received if properly sent under Subsection (74)(a).
             2093          (75) (a) "Software" means a computer program and any supporting information provided
             2094      in connection with a transaction relating to the program.
             2095          (b) "Software" does not include a computer program that is included in the definition of
             2096      goods.
             2097          (76) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the
             2098      United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction of the
             2099      United States.
             2100          (77) "Supporting obligation" means a letter-of-credit right or secondary obligation that
             2101      supports the payment or performance of an account, chattel paper, a document, a general
             2102      intangible, an instrument, or investment property.
             2103          (78) "Tangible chattel paper" means chattel paper evidenced by a record or records
             2104      consisting of information that is inscribed on a tangible medium.


             2105          (79) "Termination statement" means an amendment of a financing statement which:
             2106          (a) identifies, by its file number, the initial financing statement to which it relates; and
             2107          (b) indicates either that it is a termination statement or that the identified financing
             2108      statement is no longer effective.
             2109          (80) "Transmitting utility" means a person primarily engaged in the business of:
             2110          (a) operating a railroad, subway, street railway, or trolley bus;
             2111          (b) transmitting communications electrically, electromagnetically, or by light;
             2112          (c) transmitting goods by pipeline or sewer; or
             2113          (d) transmitting or producing and transmitting electricity, steam, gas, or water.
             2114          Section 42. Section 70A-9a-102.1 is enacted to read:
             2115          70A-9a-102.1. Definitions from other chapters.
             2116          (1) The following definitions in other chapters of this title apply to this chapter:
             2117          (a) "Applicant" Section 70A-5-102 .
             2118          (b) "Beneficiary" Section 70A-5-102 .
             2119          (c) "Broker" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2120          (d) "Certificated security" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2121          (e) "Check" Section 70A-3-104 .
             2122          (f) "Clearing corporation" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2123          (g) "Contract for sale" Section 70A-2-106 .
             2124          (h) "Customer" Section 70A-4-104 .
             2125          (i) "Entitlement holder" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2126          (j) "Financial asset" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2127          (k) "Holder in due course" Section 70A-3-302 .
             2128          (l) (i) "Issuer" (with respect to a letter of credit or letter-of-credit right) Section 70A-5-102 .
             2129          (ii) "Issuer" (with respect to a security) Section 70A-8-201 .
             2130          (m) "Lease" Section 70A-2a-103 .
             2131          (n) "Lease agreement" Section 70A-2a-103 .
             2132          (o) "Lease contract" Section 70A-2a-103 .
             2133          (p) "Leasehold interest" Section 70A-2a-103 .
             2134          (q) "Lessee" Section 70A-2a-103 .
             2135          (r) "Lessee in ordinary course of business" Section 70A-2a-103 .


             2136          (s) "Lessor" Section 70A-2a-103 .
             2137          (t) "Lessor's residual interest" Section 70A-2a-103 .
             2138          (u) "Letter of credit" Section 70A-5-102 .
             2139          (v) "Merchant" Section 70A-2-104 .
             2140          (w) "Negotiable instrument" Section 70A-3-104 .
             2141          (x) "Nominated person" Section 70A-5-102 .
             2142          (y) "Note" Section 70A-3-104 .
             2143          (z) "Proceeds of a letter of credit" Section 70A-5-114 .
             2144          (aa) "Prove" Section 70A-3-103 .
             2145          (bb) "Sale" Section 70A-2-106 .
             2146          (cc) "Securities account" Section 70A-8-501 .
             2147          (dd) "Securities intermediary" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2148          (ee) "Security" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2149          (ff) "Security certificate" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2150          (gg) "Security entitlement" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2151          (hh) "Uncertificated security" Section 70A-8-101 .
             2152          (2) Chapter 1 contains general definitions and principles of construction and interpretation
             2153      applicable throughout this chapter.
             2154          Section 43. Section 70A-9a-103 is enacted to read:
             2155          70A-9a-103. Purchase-money security interest -- Application of payments -- Burden
             2156      of establishing.
             2157          (1) In this section:
             2158          (a) "purchase-money collateral" means goods or software that secures a purchase-money
             2159      obligation incurred with respect to that collateral; and
             2160          (b) "purchase-money obligation" means an obligation of an obligor incurred as all or part
             2161      of the price of the collateral or for value given to enable the debtor to acquire rights in or the use
             2162      of the collateral if the value is in fact so used.
             2163          (2) A security interest in goods is a purchase-money security interest:
             2164          (a) to the extent that the goods are purchase-money collateral with respect to that security
             2165      interest;
             2166          (b) if the security interest is in inventory that is or was purchase-money collateral, also to


             2167      the extent that the security interest secures a purchase-money obligation incurred with respect to
             2168      other inventory in which the secured party holds or held a purchase-money security interest; and
             2169          (c) also to the extent that the security interest secures a purchase-money obligation
             2170      incurred with respect to software in which the secured party holds or held a purchase-money
             2171      security interest.
             2172          (3) A security interest in software is a purchase-money security interest to the extent that
             2173      the security interest also secures a purchase-money obligation incurred with respect to goods in
             2174      which the secured party holds or held a purchase-money security interest if:
             2175          (a) the debtor acquired its interest in the software in an integrated transaction in which it
             2176      acquired an interest in the goods; and
             2177          (b) the debtor acquired its interest in the software for the principal purpose of using the
             2178      software in the goods.
             2179          (4) The security interest of a consignor in goods that are the subject of a consignment is
             2180      a purchase-money security interest in inventory.
             2181          (5) In a transaction other than a consumer-goods transaction, if the extent to which a
             2182      security interest is a purchase-money security interest depends on the application of a payment to
             2183      a particular obligation, the payment must be applied:
             2184          (a) in accordance with any reasonable method of application to which the parties agree;
             2185          (b) in the absence of the parties' agreement to a reasonable method, in accordance with any
             2186      intention of the obligor manifested at or before the time of payment; or
             2187          (c) in the absence of an agreement to a reasonable method and a timely manifestation of
             2188      the obligor's intention, in the following order:
             2189          (i) to obligations that are not secured; and
             2190          (ii) if more than one obligation is secured, to obligations secured by purchase-money
             2191      security interests in the order in which those obligations were incurred.
             2192          (6) In a transaction other than a consumer-goods transaction, a purchase-money security
             2193      interest does not lose its status as such, even if:
             2194          (a) the purchase-money collateral also secures an obligation that is not a purchase-money
             2195      obligation;
             2196          (b) collateral that is not purchase-money collateral also secures the purchase-money
             2197      obligation; or


             2198          (c) the purchase-money obligation has been renewed, refinanced, consolidated, or
             2199      restructured.
             2200          (7) In a transaction other than a consumer-goods transaction, a secured party claiming a
             2201      purchase-money security interest has the burden of establishing the extent to which the security
             2202      interest is a purchase-money security interest.
             2203          (8) The limitation of the rules in Subsections (5), (6), and (7) to transactions other than
             2204      consumer-goods transactions is intended to leave to the court the determination of the proper rules
             2205      in consumer-goods transactions. The court may not infer from that limitation the nature of the
             2206      proper rule in consumer-goods transactions and may continue to apply established approaches.
             2207          Section 44. Section 70A-9a-104 is enacted to read:
             2208          70A-9a-104. Control of deposit account.
             2209          (1) A secured party has control of a deposit account if:
             2210          (a) the secured party is the bank with which the deposit account is maintained;
             2211          (b) the debtor, secured party, and bank have agreed in an authenticated record that the bank
             2212      will comply with instructions originated by the secured party directing disposition of the funds in
             2213      the deposit account without further consent by the debtor; or
             2214          (c) the secured party becomes the bank's customer with respect to the deposit account.
             2215          (2) A secured party that has satisfied Subsection (1) has control, even if the debtor retains
             2216      the right to direct the disposition of funds from the deposit account.
             2217          Section 45. Section 70A-9a-105 is enacted to read:
             2218          70A-9a-105. Control of electronic chattel paper.
             2219          A secured party has control of electronic chattel paper if the record or records comprising
             2220      the chattel paper are created, stored, and assigned in such a manner that:
             2221          (1) a single authoritative copy of the record or records exists which is unique, identifiable
             2222      and, except as otherwise provided in Subsections (4), (5), and (6), unalterable;
             2223          (2) the authoritative copy identifies the secured party as the assignee of the record or
             2224      records;
             2225          (3) the authoritative copy is communicated to and maintained by the secured party or its
             2226      designated custodian;
             2227          (4) copies or revisions that add or change an identified assignee of the authoritative copy
             2228      can be made only with the participation of the secured party;


             2229          (5) each copy of the authoritative copy and any copy of a copy is readily identifiable as a
             2230      copy that is not the authoritative copy; and
             2231          (6) any revision of the authoritative copy is readily identifiable as an authorized or
             2232      unauthorized revision.
             2233          Section 46. Section 70A-9a-106 is enacted to read:
             2234          70A-9a-106. Control of investment property.
             2235          (1) A person has control of a certificated security, uncertificated security, or security
             2236      entitlement as provided in Section 70A-8-105 .
             2237          (2) A secured party has control of a commodity contract if:
             2238          (a) the secured party is the commodity intermediary with which the commodity contract
             2239      is carried; or
             2240          (b) the commodity customer, secured party, and commodity intermediary have agreed that
             2241      the commodity intermediary will apply any value distributed on account of the commodity contract
             2242      as directed by the secured party without further consent by the commodity customer.
             2243          (3) A secured party having control of all security entitlements or commodity contracts
             2244      carried in a securities account or commodity account has control over the securities account or
             2245      commodity account.
             2246          Section 47. Section 70A-9a-107 is enacted to read:
             2247          70A-9a-107. Control of letter-of-credit right.
             2248          A secured party has control of a letter-of-credit right to the extent of any right to payment
             2249      or performance by the issuer or any nominated person if the issuer or nominated person has
             2250      consented to an assignment of proceeds of the letter of credit under Subsection 70A-5-114 (3) or
             2251      otherwise applicable law or practice.
             2252          Section 48. Section 70A-9a-108 is enacted to read:
             2253          70A-9a-108. Sufficiency of description.
             2254          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Subsections (3), (4), and (5), a description of personal
             2255      or real property is sufficient, whether or not it is specific, if it reasonably identifies what is
             2256      described.
             2257          (2) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (4), a description of collateral reasonably
             2258      identifies the collateral if it identifies the collateral by:
             2259          (a) specific listing;


             2260          (b) category;
             2261          (c) except as otherwise provided in Subsection (5), a type of collateral defined in this title;
             2262          (d) quantity;
             2263          (e) computational or allocational formula or procedure; or
             2264          (f) except as otherwise provided in Subsection (3), any other method, if the identity of the
             2265      collateral is objectively determinable.
             2266          (3) A description of collateral as "all the debtor's assets" or "all the debtor's personal
             2267      property" or using words of similar import does not reasonably identify the collateral.
             2268          (4) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (5), a description of a security entitlement,
             2269      securities account, or commodity account is sufficient if it describes:
             2270          (a) the collateral by those terms or as investment property; or
             2271          (b) the underlying financial asset or commodity contract.
             2272          (5) A description only by type of collateral defined in this title is an insufficient description
             2273      of:
             2274          (a) a commercial tort claim; or
             2275          (b) in a consumer transaction, consumer goods, a security entitlement, a securities account,
             2276      or a commodity account.
             2277          Section 49. Section 70A-9a-109 is enacted to read:
             2278          70A-9a-109. Scope.
             2279          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Subsections (3) and (4), this chapter applies to:
             2280          (a) a transaction, regardless of its form, that creates a security interest in personal property
             2281      or fixtures by contract;
             2282          (b) an agricultural lien;
             2283          (c) a sale of accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes;
             2284          (d) a consignment;
             2285          (e) a security interest arising under Section 70A-2-401 or 70A-2-505 or Subsection
             2286      70A-2-711 (3) or 70A-2a-508 (5), as provided in Section 70A-9a-110 ; and
             2287          (f) a security interest arising under Section 70A-4-210 or 70A-5-118 .
             2288          (2) The application of this chapter to a security interest in a secured obligation is not
             2289      affected by the fact that the obligation is itself secured by a transaction or interest to which this
             2290      chapter does not apply.


             2291          (3) This chapter does not apply to the extent that:
             2292          (a) a statute, regulation, or treaty of the United States preempts this chapter;
             2293          (b) another statute of this state expressly governs the creation, perfection, priority, or
             2294      enforcement of a security interest created by this state or a governmental unit of this state;
             2295          (c) a statute of another state, a foreign country, or a governmental unit of another state or
             2296      a foreign country, other than a statute generally applicable to security interests, expressly governs
             2297      creation, perfection, priority, or enforcement of a security interest created by the state, country, or
             2298      governmental unit; or
             2299          (d) the rights of a transferee beneficiary or nominated person under a letter of credit are
             2300      independent and superior under Section 70A-5-114 .
             2301          (4) This chapter does not apply to:
             2302          (a) a landlord's lien, other than an agricultural lien;
             2303          (b) a lien, other than an agricultural lien, given by statute or other rule of law for services
             2304      or materials, but Section 70A-9a-333 applies with respect to priority of the lien;
             2305          (c) an assignment of a claim for wages, salary, or other compensation of an employee;
             2306          (d) a sale of accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes as part of
             2307      a sale of the business out of which they arose;
             2308          (e) an assignment of accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes
             2309      which is for the purpose of collection only;
             2310          (f) an assignment of a right to payment under a contract to an assignee that is also
             2311      obligated to perform under the contract;
             2312          (g) an assignment of a single account, payment intangible, or promissory note to an
             2313      assignee in full or partial satisfaction of a preexisting indebtedness;
             2314          (h) a transfer of an interest in or an assignment of a claim under a policy of insurance,
             2315      other than an assignment by or to a health-care provider of a health-care-insurance receivable and
             2316      any subsequent assignment of the right to payment, but Sections 70A-9a-315 and 70A-9a-322
             2317      apply with respect to proceeds and priorities in proceeds;
             2318          (i) an assignment of a right represented by a judgment, other than a judgment taken on a
             2319      right to payment that was collateral;
             2320          (j) a right of recoupment or set-off, but:
             2321          (i) Section 70A-9a-340 applies with respect to the effectiveness of rights of recoupment


             2322      or set-off against deposit accounts; and
             2323          (ii) Section 70A-9a-404 applies with respect to defenses or claims of an account debtor;
             2324          (k) the creation or transfer of an interest in or lien on real property, including a lease or
             2325      rents thereunder, except to the extent that provision is made for:
             2326          (i) liens on real property in Sections 70A-9a-203 and 70A-9a-308 ;
             2327          (ii) fixtures in Section 70A-9a-334 ;
             2328          (iii) fixture filings in Sections 70A-9a-501 , 70A-9a-502 , 70A-9a-512 , 70A-9a-516 , and
             2329      70A-9a-519 ; and
             2330          (iv) security agreements covering personal and real property in Section 70A-9a-604 ;
             2331          (l) an assignment of a claim arising in tort, other than a commercial tort claim, but Sections
             2332      70A-9a-315 and 70A-9a-322 apply with respect to proceeds and priorities in proceeds; or
             2333          (m) an assignment of a deposit account in a consumer transaction, but Sections
             2334      70A-9a-315 and 70A-9a-322 apply with respect to proceeds and priorities in proceeds.
             2335          Section 50. Section 70A-9a-110 is enacted to read:
             2336          70A-9a-110. Security interests arising under Chapter 2 or 2a.
             2337          A security interest arising under Section 70A-2-401 or 70A-2-505 , or Subsection
             2338      70A-2-711 (3) or 70A-2a-508 (5) is subject to this chapter. However, until the debtor obtains
             2339      possession of the goods:
             2340          (1) the security interest is enforceable, even if Subsection 70A-9a-203 (2)(c) has not been
             2341      satisfied;
             2342          (2) filing is not required to perfect the security interest;
             2343          (3) the rights of the secured party after default by the debtor are governed by Chapter 2 or
             2344      2a; and
             2345          (4) the security interest has priority over a conflicting security interest created by the
             2346      debtor.
             2347          Section 51. Section 70A-9a-201 is enacted to read:
             2348     
Part 2. Effectiveness of Security Agreement -- Attachment of Security Interest -- Rights

             2349     
of Parties to Security Agreement

             2350          70A-9a-201. General effectiveness of security agreement.
             2351          (1) Except as otherwise provided in this title, a security agreement is effective according
             2352      to its terms between the parties, against purchasers of the collateral, and against creditors.


             2353          (2) A transaction subject to this chapter is subject to:
             2354          (a) any applicable rule of law which establishes a different rule for consumers; and
             2355          (b) Title 70C, Utah Consumer Credit Code.
             2356          (3) In case of conflict between this chapter and a rule of law, statute, or regulation
             2357      described in Subsection (2), the rule of law, statute, or regulation controls. Failure to comply with
             2358      a statute or regulation described in Subsection (2) has only the effect the statute or regulation
             2359      specifies.
             2360          (4) This chapter does not:
             2361          (a) validate any rate, charge, agreement, or practice that violates a rule of law, statute, or
             2362      regulation described in Subsection (2); or
             2363          (b) extend the application of the rule of law, statute, or regulation to a transaction not
             2364      otherwise subject to it.
             2365          Section 52. Section 70A-9a-202 is enacted to read:
             2366          70A-9a-202. Title to collateral immaterial.
             2367          Except as otherwise provided with respect to consignments or sales of accounts, chattel
             2368      paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes, the provisions of this chapter with regard to rights
             2369      and obligations apply whether title to collateral is in the secured party or the debtor.
             2370          Section 53. Section 70A-9a-203 is enacted to read:
             2371          70A-9a-203. Attachment and enforceability of security interest -- Proceeds --
             2372      Supporting obligations -- Formal requisites.
             2373          (1) A security interest attaches to collateral when it becomes enforceable against the debtor
             2374      with respect to the collateral, unless an agreement expressly postpones the time of attachment.
             2375          (2) Except as otherwise provided in Subsections (3) through (9), a security interest is
             2376      enforceable against the debtor and third parties with respect to the collateral only if:
             2377          (a) value has been given;
             2378          (b) the debtor has rights in the collateral or the power to transfer rights in the collateral to
             2379      a secured party; and
             2380          (c) one of the following conditions is met:
             2381          (i) the debtor has authenticated a security agreement that provides a description of the
             2382      collateral and, if the security interest covers timber to be cut, a description of the land concerned;
             2383          (ii) the collateral is not a certificated security and is in the possession of the secured party


             2384      under Section 70A-9a-313 pursuant to the debtor's security agreement;
             2385          (iii) the collateral is a certificated security in registered form and the security certificate
             2386      has been delivered to the secured party under Section 70A-8-301 pursuant to the debtor's security
             2387      agreement; or
             2388          (iv) the collateral is deposit accounts, electronic chattel paper, investment property, or
             2389      letter-of-credit rights, and the secured party has control under Section 70A-9a-104 , 70A-9a-105 ,
             2390      70A-9a-106 , or 70A-9a-107 pursuant to the debtor's security agreement.
             2391          (3) Subsection (2) is subject to Section 70A-4-210 on the security interest of a collecting
             2392      bank, Section 70A-5-118 on the security interest of a letter-of-credit issuer or nominated person,
             2393      Section 70A-9a-110 on a security interest arising under Chapter 2 or 2a, and Section 70A-9a-206
             2394      on security interests in investment property.
             2395          (4) A person becomes bound as debtor by a security agreement entered into by another
             2396      person if, by operation of law other than this chapter or by contract:
             2397          (a) the security agreement becomes effective to create a security interest in the person's
             2398      property; or
             2399          (b) the person becomes generally obligated for the obligations of the other person,
             2400      including the obligation secured under the security agreement, and acquires or succeeds to all or
             2401      substantially all of the assets of the other person.
             2402          (5) If a new debtor becomes bound as debtor by a security agreement entered into by
             2403      another person:
             2404          (a) the agreement satisfies Subsection (2)(c) with respect to existing or after-acquired
             2405      property of the new debtor to the extent the property is described in the agreement; and
             2406          (b) another agreement is not necessary to make a security interest in the property
             2407      enforceable.
             2408          (6) The attachment of a security interest in collateral gives the secured party the rights to
             2409      proceeds provided by Section 70A-9a-315 and is also attachment of a security interest in a
             2410      supporting obligation for the collateral.
             2411          (7) The attachment of a security interest in a right to payment or performance secured by
             2412      a security interest or other lien on personal or real property is also attachment of a security interest
             2413      in the security interest, mortgage, or other lien.
             2414          (8) The attachment of a security interest in a securities account is also attachment of a


             2415      security interest in the security entitlements carried in the securities account.
             2416          (9) The attachment of a security interest in a commodity account is also attachment of a
             2417      security interest in the commodity contracts carried in the commodity account.
             2418          Section 54. Section 70A-9a-204 is enacted to read:
             2419          70A-9a-204. After-acquired property -- Future advances.
             2420          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (2), a security agreement may create or
             2421      provide for a security interest in after-acquired collateral.
             2422          (2) A security interest does not attach under a term constituting an after-acquired property
             2423      clause to:
             2424          (a) consumer goods, other than an accession when given as additional security, unless the
             2425      debtor acquires rights in them within ten days after the secured party gives value; or
             2426          (b) a commercial tort claim.
             2427          (3) A security agreement may provide that collateral secures, or that accounts, chattel
             2428      paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes are sold in connection with, future advances or
             2429      other value, whether or not the advances or value are given pursuant to commitment.
             2430          Section 55. Section 70A-9a-205 is enacted to read:
             2431          70A-9a-205. Use or disposition of collateral permissible.
             2432          (1) A security interest is not invalid or fraudulent against creditors solely because:
             2433          (a) the debtor has the right or ability to:
             2434          (i) use, commingle, or dispose of all or part of the collateral, including returned or
             2435      repossessed goods;
             2436          (ii) collect, compromise, enforce, or otherwise deal with collateral;
             2437          (iii) accept the return of collateral or make repossessions; or
             2438          (iv) use, commingle, or dispose of proceeds; or
             2439          (b) the secured party fails to require the debtor to account for proceeds or replace
             2440      collateral.
             2441          (2) This section does not relax the requirements of possession if attachment, perfection,
             2442      or enforcement of a security interest depends upon possession of the collateral by the secured party.
             2443          Section 56. Section 70A-9a-206 is enacted to read:
             2444          70A-9a-206. Security interest arising in purchase or delivery of financial asset.
             2445          (1) A security interest in favor of a securities intermediary attaches to a person's security


             2446      entitlement if:
             2447          (a) the person buys a financial asset through the securities intermediary in a transaction in
             2448      which the person is obligated to pay the purchase price to the securities intermediary at the time
             2449      of the purchase; and
             2450          (b) the securities intermediary credits the financial asset to the buyer's securities account
             2451      before the buyer pays the securities intermediary.
             2452          (2) The security interest described in Subsection (1) secures the person's obligation to pay
             2453      for the financial asset.
             2454          (3) A security interest in favor of a person that delivers a certificated security or other
             2455      financial asset represented by a writing attaches to the security or other financial asset if:
             2456          (a) the security or other financial asset:
             2457          (i) in the ordinary course of business is transferred by delivery with any necessary
             2458      indorsement or assignment; and
             2459          (ii) is delivered under an agreement between persons in the business of dealing with such
             2460      securities or financial assets; and
             2461          (b) the agreement calls for delivery against payment.
             2462          (4) The security interest described in Subsection (3) secures the obligation to make
             2463      payment for the delivery.
             2464          Section 57. Section 70A-9a-207 is enacted to read:
             2465          70A-9a-207. Rights and duties of secured party having possession or control of
             2466      collateral.
             2467          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (4), a secured party shall use reasonable
             2468      care in the custody and preservation of collateral in the secured party's possession. In the case of
             2469      chattel paper or an instrument, reasonable care includes taking necessary steps to preserve rights
             2470      against prior parties unless otherwise agreed.
             2471          (2) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (4), if a secured party has possession of
             2472      collateral:
             2473          (a) reasonable expenses, including the cost of insurance and payment of taxes or other
             2474      charges, incurred in the custody, preservation, use, or operation of the collateral are chargeable to
             2475      the debtor and are secured by the collateral;
             2476          (b) the risk of accidental loss or damage is on the debtor to the extent of a deficiency in


             2477      any effective insurance coverage;
             2478          (c) the secured party shall keep the collateral identifiable, but fungible collateral may be
             2479      commingled; and
             2480          (d) the secured party may use or operate the collateral:
             2481          (i) for the purpose of preserving the collateral or its value;
             2482          (ii) as permitted by an order of a court having competent jurisdiction; or
             2483          (iii) except in the case of consumer goods, in the manner and to the extent agreed by the
             2484      debtor.
             2485          (3) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (4), a secured party having possession of
             2486      collateral or control of collateral under Section 70A-9a-104 , 70A-9a-105 , 70A-9a-106 , or
             2487      70A-9a-107 :
             2488          (a) may hold as additional security any proceeds, except money or funds, received from
             2489      the collateral;
             2490          (b) shall apply money or funds received from the collateral to reduce the secured
             2491      obligation, unless remitted to the debtor; and
             2492          (c) may create a security interest in the collateral.
             2493          (4) If the secured party is a buyer of accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, or
             2494      promissory notes or a consignor:
             2495          (a) Subsection (1) does not apply unless the secured party is entitled under an agreement:
             2496          (i) to charge back uncollected collateral; or
             2497          (ii) otherwise to full or limited recourse against the debtor or a secondary obligor based
             2498      on the nonpayment or other default of an account debtor or other obligor on the collateral; and
             2499          (b) Subsections (2) and (3) do not apply.
             2500          Section 58. Section 70A-9a-208 is enacted to read:
             2501          70A-9a-208. Additional duties of secured party having control of collateral.
             2502          (1) This section applies to cases in which there is no outstanding secured obligation and
             2503      the secured party is not committed to make advances, incur obligations, or otherwise give value.
             2504          (2) Within ten days after receiving an authenticated demand by the debtor:
             2505          (a) a secured party having control of a deposit account under Subsection 70A-9a-104 (1)(b)
             2506      shall send to the bank with which the deposit account is maintained an authenticated statement that
             2507      releases the bank from any further obligation to comply with instructions originated by the secured


             2508      party;
             2509          (b) a secured party having control of a deposit account under Subsection 70A-9a-104 (1)(c)
             2510      shall:
             2511          (i) pay the debtor the balance on deposit in the deposit account; or
             2512          (ii) transfer the balance on deposit into a deposit account in the debtor's name;
             2513          (c) a secured party, other than a buyer, having control of electronic chattel paper under
             2514      Section 70A-9a-105 shall:
             2515          (i) communicate the authoritative copy of the electronic chattel paper to the debtor or its
             2516      designated custodian;
             2517          (ii) if the debtor designates a custodian that is the designated custodian with which the
             2518      authoritative copy of the electronic chattel paper is maintained for the secured party, communicate
             2519      to the custodian an authenticated record releasing the designated custodian from any further
             2520      obligation to comply with instructions originated by the secured party and instructing the custodian
             2521      to comply with instructions originated by the debtor; and
             2522          (iii) take appropriate action to enable the debtor or its designated custodian to make copies
             2523      of or revisions to the authoritative copy which add or change an identified assignee of the
             2524      authoritative copy without the consent of the secured party;
             2525          (d) a secured party having control of investment property under Subsection
             2526      70A-8-105 (4)(b) or 70A-9a-105 (2) shall send to the securities intermediary or commodity
             2527      intermediary with which the security entitlement or commodity contract is maintained an
             2528      authenticated record that releases the securities intermediary or commodity intermediary from any
             2529      further obligation to comply with entitlement orders or directions originated by the secured party;
             2530      and
             2531          (e) a secured party having control of a letter-of-credit right under Section 70A-9a-107 shall
             2532      send to each person having an unfulfilled obligation to pay or deliver proceeds of the letter of
             2533      credit to the secured party an authenticated release from any further obligation to pay or deliver
             2534      proceeds of the letter of credit to the secured party.
             2535          Section 59. Section 70A-9a-209 is enacted to read:
             2536          70A-9a-209. Duties of secured party if account debtor has been notified of
             2537      assignment.
             2538          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (3), this section applies if:


             2539          (a) there is no outstanding secured obligation; and
             2540          (b) the secured party is not committed to make advances, incur obligations, or otherwise
             2541      give value.
             2542          (2) Within ten days after receiving an authenticated demand by the debtor, a secured party
             2543      shall send to an account debtor that has received notification of an assignment to the secured party
             2544      as assignee under Subsection 70A-9a-406 (1) an authenticated record that releases the account
             2545      debtor from any further obligation to the secured party.
             2546          (3) This section does not apply to an assignment constituting the sale of an account, chattel
             2547      paper, or payment intangible.
             2548          Section 60. Section 70A-9a-210 is enacted to read:
             2549          70A-9a-210. Request for accounting -- Request regarding list of collateral or
             2550      statement of account.
             2551          (1) In this section:
             2552          (a) "Request" means a record of a type described in Subsection (1)(b), (c), or (d).
             2553          (b) "Request for an accounting" means a record authenticated by a debtor requesting that
             2554      the recipient provide an accounting of the unpaid obligations secured by collateral and reasonably
             2555      identifying the transaction or relationship that is the subject of the request.
             2556          (c) "Request regarding a list of collateral" means a record authenticated by a debtor
             2557      requesting that the recipient approve or correct a list of what the debtor believes to be the collateral
             2558      securing an obligation and reasonably identifying the transaction or relationship that is the subject
             2559      of the request.
             2560          (d) "Request regarding a statement of account" means a record authenticated by a debtor
             2561      requesting that the recipient approve or correct a statement indicating what the debtor believes to
             2562      be the aggregate amount of unpaid obligations secured by collateral as of a specified date and
             2563      reasonably identifying the transaction or relationship that is the subject of the request.
             2564          (2) Subject to Subsections (3), (4), (5), and (6), a secured party, other than a buyer of
             2565      accounts, chattel paper, payment intangibles, or promissory notes or a consignor, shall comply with
             2566      a request within 14 days after receipt:
             2567          (a) in the case of a request for an accounting, by authenticating and sending to the debtor
             2568      an accounting; and
             2569          (b) in the case of a request regarding a list of collateral or a request regarding a statement


             2570      of account, by authenticating and sending to the debtor an approval or correction.
             2571          (3) A secured party that claims a security interest in all of a particular type of collateral
             2572      owned by the debtor may comply with a request regarding a list of collateral by sending to the
             2573      debtor an authenticated record including a statement to that effect within 14 days after receipt.
             2574          (4) A person that receives a request regarding a list of collateral, claims no interest in the
             2575      collateral when it receives the request, and claimed an interest in the collateral at an earlier time
             2576      shall comply with the request within 14 days after receipt by sending to the debtor an authenticated
             2577      record:
             2578          (a) disclaiming any interest in the collateral; and
             2579          (b) if known to the recipient, providing the name and mailing address of any assignee of
             2580      or successor to the recipient's interest in the collateral.
             2581          (5) A person that receives a request for an accounting or a request regarding a statement
             2582      of account, claims no interest in the obligations when it receives the request, and claimed an
             2583      interest in the obligations at an earlier time shall comply with the request within 14 days after
             2584      receipt by sending to the debtor an authenticated record:
             2585          (a) disclaiming any interest in the obligations; and
             2586          (b) if known to the recipient, providing the name and mailing address of any assignee of
             2587      or successor to the recipient's interest in the obligations.
             2588          (6) A debtor is entitled without charge to one response to a request under this section
             2589      during any six-month period. The secured party may require payment of a charge not exceeding
             2590      $25 for each additional response.
             2591          Section 61. Section 70A-9a-301 is enacted to read:
             2592     
Part 3. Perfection and Priority

             2593          70A-9a-301. Law governing perfection and priority of security interests.
             2594          Except as otherwise provided in Sections 70A-9a-303 through 70A-9a-306 , the following
             2595      rules determine the law governing perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the
             2596      priority of a security interest in collateral:
             2597          (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, while a debtor is located in a jurisdiction,
             2598      the local law of that jurisdiction governs perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and
             2599      the priority of a security interest in collateral.
             2600          (2) While collateral is located in a jurisdiction, the local law of that jurisdiction governs


             2601      perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of a possessory security
             2602      interest in that collateral.
             2603          (3) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (4), while negotiable documents, goods,
             2604      instruments, money, or tangible chattel paper is located in a jurisdiction, the local law of that
             2605      jurisdiction governs:
             2606          (a) perfection of a security interest in the goods by filing a fixture filing;
             2607          (b) perfection of a security interest in timber to be cut; and
             2608          (c) the effect of perfection or nonperfection and the priority of a nonpossessory security
             2609      interest in the collateral.
             2610          (4) The local law of the jurisdiction in which the wellhead or minehead is located governs
             2611      perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of a security interest in
             2612      as-extracted collateral.
             2613          Section 62. Section 70A-9a-302 is enacted to read:
             2614          70A-9a-302. Law governing perfection and priority of agricultural liens.
             2615          While farm products are located in a jurisdiction, the local law of that jurisdiction governs
             2616      perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of an agricultural lien on the
             2617      farm products.
             2618          Section 63. Section 70A-9a-303 is enacted to read:
             2619          70A-9a-303. Law governing perfection and priority of security interests in goods
             2620      covered by a certificate of title.
             2621          (1) This section applies to goods covered by a certificate of title, even if there is no other
             2622      relationship between the jurisdiction under whose certificate of title the goods are covered and the
             2623      goods or the debtor.
             2624          (2) Goods become covered by a certificate of title when a valid application for the
             2625      certificate of title and the applicable fee are delivered to the appropriate authority. Goods cease
             2626      to be covered by a certificate of title at the earlier of the time the certificate of title ceases to be
             2627      effective under the law of the issuing jurisdiction or the time the goods become covered
             2628      subsequently by a certificate of title issued by another jurisdiction.
             2629          (3) The local law of the jurisdiction under whose certificate of title the goods are covered
             2630      governs perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of a security interest
             2631      in goods covered by a certificate of title from the time the goods become covered by the certificate


             2632      of title until the goods cease to be covered by the certificate of title.
             2633          Section 64. Section 70A-9a-304 is enacted to read:
             2634          70A-9a-304. Law governing perfection and priority of security interests in deposit
             2635      accounts.
             2636          (1) The local law of a bank's jurisdiction governs perfection, the effect of perfection or
             2637      nonperfection, and the priority of a security interest in a deposit account maintained with that bank.
             2638          (2) The following rules determine a bank's jurisdiction for purposes of this part:
             2639          (a) If an agreement between the bank and the debtor governing the deposit account
             2640      expressly provides that a particular jurisdiction is the bank's jurisdiction for purposes of this part,
             2641      this chapter, or this title, that jurisdiction is the bank's jurisdiction.
             2642          (b) If Subsection (2)(a) does not apply and an agreement between the bank and its
             2643      customer governing the deposit account expressly provides that the agreement is governed by the
             2644      law of a particular jurisdiction, that jurisdiction is the bank's jurisdiction.
             2645          (c) If neither Subsection (2)(a) nor Subsection (2)(b) applies and an agreement between
             2646      the bank and its customer governing the deposit account expressly provides that the deposit
             2647      account is maintained at an office in a particular jurisdiction, that jurisdiction is the bank's
             2648      jurisdiction.
             2649          (d) If none of the preceding subsections applies, the bank's jurisdiction is the jurisdiction
             2650      in which the office identified in an account statement as the office serving the customer's account
             2651      is located.
             2652          (e) If none of the preceding subsections applies, the bank's jurisdiction is the jurisdiction
             2653      in which the chief executive office of the bank is located.
             2654          Section 65. Section 70A-9a-305 is enacted to read:
             2655          70A-9a-305. Law governing perfection and priority of security interests in investment
             2656      property.
             2657          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (3), the following rules apply:
             2658          (a) While a security certificate is located in a jurisdiction, the local law of that jurisdiction
             2659      governs perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of a security interest
             2660      in the certificated security represented thereby.
             2661          (b) The local law of the issuer's jurisdiction as specified in Subsection 70A-8-110 (4)
             2662      governs perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of a security interest


             2663      in an uncertificated security.
             2664          (c) The local law of the securities intermediary's jurisdiction as specified in Subsection
             2665      70A-8-109 (5) governs perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of a
             2666      security interest in a security entitlement or securities account.
             2667          (d) The local law of the commodity intermediary's jurisdiction governs perfection, the
             2668      effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority of a security interest in a commodity contract
             2669      or commodity account.
             2670          (2) The following rules determine a commodity intermediary's jurisdiction for purposes
             2671      of this part:
             2672          (a) If an agreement between the commodity intermediary and commodity customer
             2673      governing the commodity account expressly provides that a particular jurisdiction is the
             2674      commodity intermediary's jurisdiction for purposes of this part, this chapter, or this title, that
             2675      jurisdiction is the commodity intermediary's jurisdiction.
             2676          (b) If Subsection (2)(a) does not apply and an agreement between the commodity
             2677      intermediary and commodity customer governing the commodity account expressly provides that
             2678      the agreement is governed by the law of a particular jurisdiction, that jurisdiction is the commodity
             2679      intermediary's jurisdiction.
             2680          (c) If neither Subsection (2)(a) nor Subsection (2)(b) applies and an agreement between
             2681      the commodity intermediary and commodity customer governing the commodity account expressly
             2682      provides that the commodity account is maintained at an office in a particular jurisdiction, that
             2683      jurisdiction is the commodity intermediary's jurisdiction.
             2684          (d) If none of the Subsections (2)(a) through (c) applies, the commodity intermediary's
             2685      jurisdiction is the jurisdiction in which the office identified in an account statement as the office
             2686      serving the commodity customer's account is located.
             2687          (e) If none of the Subsections (2)(a) through (d) applies, the commodity intermediary's
             2688      jurisdiction is the jurisdiction in which the chief executive office of the commodity intermediary
             2689      is located.
             2690          (3) The local law of the jurisdiction in which the debtor is located governs:
             2691          (a) perfection of a security interest in investment property by filing;
             2692          (b) automatic perfection of a security interest in investment property created by a broker
             2693      or securities intermediary; and


             2694          (c) automatic perfection of a security interest in a commodity contract or commodity
             2695      account created by a commodity intermediary.
             2696          Section 66. Section 70A-9a-306 is enacted to read:
             2697          70A-9a-306. Law governing perfection and priority of security interests in
             2698      letter-of-credit rights.
             2699          (1) Subject to Subsection (3), the local law of the issuer's jurisdiction or a nominated
             2700      person's jurisdiction governs perfection, the effect of perfection or nonperfection, and the priority
             2701      of a security interest in a letter-of-credit right if the issuer's jurisdiction or nominated person's
             2702      jurisdiction is a state.
             2703          (2) For purposes of this part, an issuer's jurisdiction or nominated person's jurisdiction is
             2704      the jurisdiction whose law governs the liability of the issuer or nominated person with respect to
             2705      the letter-of-credit right as provided in Section 70A-5-116 .
             2706          (3) This section does not apply to a security interest that is perfected only under Subsection
             2707      70A-9a-308 (4).
             2708          Section 67. Section 70A-9a-307 is enacted to read:
             2709          70A-9a-307. Location of debtor.
             2710          (1) In this section, "place of business" means a place where a debtor conducts its affairs.
             2711          (2) Except as otherwise provided in this section, the following rules determine a debtor's
             2712      location:
             2713          (a) A debtor who is an individual is located at the individual's principal residence.
             2714          (b) A debtor that is an organization and has only one place of business is located at its
             2715      place of business.
             2716          (c) A debtor that is an organization and has more than one place of business is located at
             2717      its chief executive office.
             2718          (3) Subsection (2) applies only if a debtor's residence, place of business, or chief executive
             2719      office, as applicable, is located in a jurisdiction whose law generally requires information
             2720      concerning the existence of a nonpossessory security interest to be made generally available in a
             2721      filing, recording, or registration system as a condition or result of the security interest's obtaining
             2722      priority over the rights of a lien creditor with respect to the collateral. If Subsection (2) does not
             2723      apply, the debtor is located in the District of Columbia.
             2724          (4) A person that ceases to exist, have a residence, or have a place of business continues


             2725      to be located in the jurisdiction specified by Subsections (2) and (3).
             2726          (5) A registered organization that is organized under the law of a state is located in that
             2727      state.
             2728          (6) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (9), a registered organization that is
             2729      organized under the law of the United States and a branch or agency of a bank that is not organized
             2730      under the law of the United States or a state are located:
             2731          (a) in the state that the law of the United States designates, if the law designates a state of
             2732      location;
             2733          (b) in the state that the registered organization, branch, or agency designates, if the law of
             2734      the United States authorizes the registered organization, branch, or agency to designate its state of
             2735      location; or
             2736          (c) in the District of Columbia, if neither Subsection (6)(a) nor Subsection (6)(b) applies.
             2737          (7) A registered organization continues to be located in the jurisdiction specified by
             2738      Subsection (5) or (6) notwithstanding:
             2739          (a) the suspension, revocation, forfeiture, or lapse of the registered organization's status
             2740      as such in its jurisdiction of organization; or
             2741          (b) the dissolution, winding up, or cancellation of the existence of the registered
             2742      organization.
             2743          (8) The United States is located in the District of Columbia.
             2744          (9) A branch or agency of a bank that is not organized under the law of the United States
             2745      or a state is located in the state in which the branch or agency is licensed, if all branches and
             2746      agencies of the bank are licensed in only one state.
             2747          (10) A foreign air carrier under the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended, is located
             2748      at the designated office of the agent upon which service of process may be made on behalf of the
             2749      carrier.
             2750          (11) This section applies only for purposes of this part.
             2751          Section 68. Section 70A-9a-308 is enacted to read:
             2752          70A-9a-308. When security interest or agricultural lien is perfected -- Continuity of
             2753      perfection.
             2754          (1) Except as otherwise provided in this section and Section 70A-9a-309 , a security
             2755      interest is perfected if it has attached and all of the applicable requirements for perfection in


             2756      Sections 70A-9a-310 through 70A-9a-316 have been satisfied. A security interest is perfected
             2757      when it attaches if the applicable requirements are satisfied before the security interest attaches.
             2758          (2) An agricultural lien is perfected if it has become effective and all of the applicable
             2759      requirements for perfection in Section 70A-9a-310 have been satisfied. An agricultural lien is
             2760      perfected when it becomes effective if the applicable requirements are satisfied before the
             2761      agricultural lien becomes effective.
             2762          (3) A security interest or agricultural lien is perfected continuously if it is originally
             2763      perfected by one method under this chapter and is later perfected by another method under this
             2764      chapter, without an intermediate period when it was unperfected.
             2765          (4) Perfection of a security interest in collateral also perfects a security interest in a
             2766      supporting obligation for the collateral.
             2767          (5) Perfection of a security interest in a right to payment or performance also perfects a
             2768      security interest in a security interest, mortgage, or other lien on personal or real property securing
             2769      the right.
             2770          (6) Perfection of a security interest in a securities account also perfects a security interest
             2771      in the security entitlements carried in the securities account.
             2772          (7) Perfection of a security interest in a commodity account also perfects a security interest
             2773      in the commodity contracts carried in the commodity account.
             2774          Section 69. Section 70A-9a-309 is enacted to read:
             2775          70A-9a-309. Security interest perfected upon attachment.
             2776          The following security interests are perfected when they attach:
             2777          (1) a purchase-money security interest in consumer goods, except as otherwise provided
             2778      in Subsection 70A-9a-311 (2) with respect to consumer goods that are subject to a statute or treaty
             2779      described in Subsection 70A-9a-311 (1);
             2780          (2) an assignment of accounts or payment intangibles which does not by itself or in
             2781      conjunction with other assignments to the same assignee transfer a significant part of the assignor's
             2782      outstanding accounts or payment intangibles;
             2783          (3) a sale of a payment intangible;
             2784          (4) a sale of a promissory note;
             2785          (5) a security interest created by the assignment of a health-care-insurance receivable to
             2786      the provider of the health-care goods or services;


             2787          (6) a security interest arising under Section 70A-2-401 or 70A-2-505 or Subsection
             2788      70A-2-711 (3) or 70A-2a-508 (5), until the debtor obtains possession of the collateral;
             2789          (7) a security interest of a collecting bank arising under Section 70A-4-210 ;
             2790          (8) a security interest of an issuer or nominated person arising under Section 70A-5-118 ;
             2791          (9) a security interest arising in the delivery of a financial asset under Subsection
             2792      70A-9a-206 (3);
             2793          (10) a security interest in investment property created by a broker or securities
             2794      intermediary;
             2795          (11) a security interest in a commodity contract or a commodity account created by a
             2796      commodity intermediary;
             2797          (12) an assignment for the benefit of all creditors of the transferor and subsequent transfers
             2798      by the assignee thereunder; and
             2799          (13) a security interest created by an assignment of a beneficial interest in a decedent's
             2800      estate.
             2801          Section 70. Section 70A-9a-310 is enacted to read:
             2802          70A-9a-310. When filing required to perfect security interest or agricultural lien --
             2803      Security interests and agricultural liens to which filing provisions do not apply.
             2804          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (2) and Subsection 70A-9a-312 (2), a
             2805      financing statement must be filed to perfect all security interests and agricultural liens.
             2806          (2) The filing of a financing statement is not necessary to perfect a security interest:
             2807          (a) that is perfected under Subsection 70A-9a-308 (4), (5), (6), or (7);
             2808          (b) that is perfected under Section 70A-9a-309 when it attaches;
             2809          (c) in property subject to a statute, regulation, or treaty described in Subsection
             2810      70A-9a-311 (1);
             2811          (d) in goods in possession of a bailee which is perfected under Subsection
             2812      70A-9a-312 (4)(a) or (b);
             2813          (e) in certificated securities, documents, goods, or instruments which is perfected without
             2814      filing or possession under Subsection 70A-9a-312 (5), (6), or (7);
             2815          (f) in collateral in the secured party's possession under Section 70A-9a-313 ;
             2816          (g) in a certificated security which is perfected by delivery of the security certificate to the
             2817      secured party under Section 70A-9a-313 ;


             2818          (h) in deposit accounts, electronic chattel paper, investment property, or letter-of-credit
             2819      rights which is perfected by control under Section 70A-9a-314 ;
             2820          (i) in proceeds which is perfected under Section 70A-9a-315 ; or
             2821          (j) that is perfected under Section 70A-9a-316 .
             2822          (3) If a secured party assigns a perfected security interest or agricultural lien, a filing under
             2823      this chapter is not required to continue the perfected status of the security interest against creditors
             2824      of and transferees from the original debtor.
             2825          Section 71. Section 70A-9a-311 is enacted to read:
             2826          70A-9a-311. Perfection of security interests in property subject to certain statutes,
             2827      regulations, and treaties.
             2828          (1) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (4), the filing of a financing statement is
             2829      not necessary or effective to perfect a security interest in property subject to:
             2830          (a) a statute, regulation, or treaty of the United States whose requirements for a security
             2831      interest's obtaining priority over the rights of a lien creditor with respect to the property preempt
             2832      Subsection 70A-9a-310 (1);
             2833          (b) Section 41-1a-601 ; or
             2834          (c) a certificate-of-title statute of another jurisdiction which provides for a security interest
             2835      to be indicated on the certificate as a condition or result of the security interest's obtaining priority
             2836      over the rights of a lien creditor with respect to the property.
             2837          (2) Compliance with the requirements of a statute, regulation, or treaty described in
             2838      Subsection (1) for obtaining priority over the rights of a lien creditor is equivalent to the filing of
             2839      a financing statement under this chapter. Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (4), Section
             2840      70A-9a-313 , and Subsections 70A-9a-316 (4) and (5) for goods covered by a certificate of title, a
             2841      security interest in property subject to a statute, regulation, or treaty described in Subsection (1)
             2842      may be perfected only by compliance with those requirements, and a security interest so perfected
             2843      remains perfected notwithstanding a change in the use or transfer of possession of the collateral.
             2844          (3) Except as otherwise provided in Subsection (4) and Subsections 70A-9a-316 (4) and
             2845      (5), duration and renewal of perfection of a security interest perfected by compliance with the
             2846      requirements prescribed by a statute, regulation, or treaty described in Subsection (1) are governed
             2847      by the statute, regulation, or treaty. In other respects, the security interest is subject to this chapter.
             2848          (4) During any period in which collateral subject to a statute specified in Subsection (1)(b)


             2849      is inventory held for sale or lease by a person or leased by that person as lessor and that person is
             2850      in the business of selling goods of that kind, this section does not apply to a security interest in that
             2851      collateral created by that person.
             2852          Section 72. Section 70A-9a-312 is enacted to read:
             2853          70A-9a-312. Perfection of security interests in chattel paper, deposit accounts,
             2854      documents, goods covered by documents, instruments, investment property, letter-of-credit
             2855      rights, and money -- Perfection by permissive filing -- Temporary perfection without filing
             2856      or transfer of possession.
             2857          (1) A security interest in chattel paper, negotiable documents, instruments, or investment
             2858      property may be perfected by filing.
             2859          (2) Except as otherwise provided in Subsections 70A-9a-315 (3) and (4) for proceeds:
             2860          (a) a security interest in a deposit account may be perfected only by control under Section
             2861      70A-9a-314 ;
             2862          (b) and except as otherwise provided in Subsection 70A-9a-308 (4), a security interest in
             2863      a letter-of-credit right may be perfected only by control under Section 70A-9a-314 ; and
             2864          (c) a security interest in money may be perfected only by the secured party's taking
             2865      possession under Section 70A-9a-313 .
             2866          (3) While goods are in the possession of a bailee that has issued a negotiable document
             2867      covering the goods:
             2868          (a) a security interest in the goods may be perfected by perfecting a security interest in the
             2869      document; and
             2870          (b) a security interest perfected in the document has priority over any security interest that
             2871      becomes perfected in the goods by another method during that time.
             2872          (4) While goods are in the possession of a bailee that has issued a nonnegotiable document
             2873      covering the goods, a security interest in the goods may be perfected by:
             2874          (a) issuance of a document in the name of the secured party;
             2875          (b) the bailee's receipt of notification of the secured party's interest; or
             2876          (c) filing as to the goods.
             2877          (5) A security interest in certificated securities, negotiable documents, or instruments is
             2878      perfected without filing or the taking of possession for a period of 20 days from the time it attaches
             2879      to the extent that it arises for new value given under an authenticated security agreement.


             2880          (6) A perfected security interest in a negotiable document or goods in possession of a
             2881      bailee, other than one that has issued a negotiable document for the goods, remains perfected for
             2882      20 days without filing if the secured party makes available to the debtor the goods or documents
             2883      representing the goods for the purpose of:
             2884          (a) ultimate sale or exchange; or