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H.B. 76






Sponsor: Paul Ray

             7      LONG TITLE
             8      General Description:
             9          This bill provides specific references to offenses to be included in the definition of a
             10      violent felony under the Criminal Code.
             11      Highlighted Provisions:
             12          This bill:
             13          .    adds listed offenses to the definition of a violent felony, including:
             14              .    mayhem;
             15              .    stalking;
             16              .    terroristic threat; and
             17              .    child abuse;
             18          .    removes requirement that proof of defendant's conduct as a habitual violent offender
             19      be provided at the preliminary hearing or at the trial as an element of the offense;
             20      and
             21          .    amends provisions regarding notice to the defendant that the defendant is subject to
             22      punishment as a habitual violent offender.
             23      Monies Appropriated in this Bill:
             24          None
             25      Other Special Clauses:
             26          This bill provides an immediate effective date.
             27      Utah Code Sections Affected:

             28      AMENDS:
             29          76-1-302, as last amended by Chapter 61, Laws of Utah 2003
             30          76-3-203.5, as last amended by Chapter 140, Laws of Utah 2004
             32      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
             33          Section 1. Section 76-1-302 is amended to read:
             34           76-1-302. Time limitations for prosecution of offenses -- Provisions if DNA
             35      evidence would identify the defendant -- Commencement of prosecution.
             36          (1) Except as otherwise provided, a prosecution for:
             37          (a) a felony or negligent homicide shall be commenced within four years after it is
             38      committed;
             39          (b) a misdemeanor other than negligent homicide shall be commenced within two years
             40      after it is committed; and
             41          (c) any infraction shall be commenced within one year after it is committed.
             42          (2) (a) A prosecution for the offenses listed in Subsections 76-3-203.5 (1)(c)(i)(A)
             43      through [(P)] (AA) may be commenced at any time if the identity of the person who committed
             44      the crime is unknown but DNA evidence is collected that would identify the person at a later
             45      date.
             46          (b) Subsection (2)(a) does not apply if the statute of limitations on a crime has run as of
             47      May 5, 2003, and no charges have been filed.
             48          (3) If the statute of limitations would have run but for the provisions of Subsection (2)
             49      and identification of a perpetrator is made through DNA, a prosecution shall be commenced
             50      within one year of the discovery of the identity of the perpetrator.
             51          (4) A prosecution is commenced upon the finding and filing of an indictment by a
             52      grand jury or upon the filing of a complaint or information.
             53          Section 2. Section 76-3-203.5 is amended to read:
             54           76-3-203.5. Habitual violent offender -- Definition -- Procedure -- Penalty.
             55          (1) As used in this section:
             56          (a) "Felony" means any [offense against] violation of a criminal statute of the state, any
             57      other state, the United States, or any district, possession, or territory of the United States for
             58      which the maximum punishment the offender may be subjected to exceeds one year in prison.

             59          (b) "Habitual violent offender" means a person convicted within the state of any violent
             60      felony and who[,] on at least two previous occasions has been convicted of a violent felony and
             61      committed to either prison in Utah or an equivalent correctional institution of another state or
             62      of the United States either at initial sentencing or after revocation of probation.
             63          (c) (i) "Violent felony" means any of the following offenses, or any attempt,
             64      solicitation, or conspiracy to commit any of these offenses punishable as a felony:
             65          (A) aggravated arson, arson, knowingly causing a catastrophe, and criminal mischief
             66      [under], Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 1, Property Destruction;
             67          (B) [aggravated assault under Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 1, Assault and Related
             68      Offenses] assault by prisoner, Section 76-5-102.5 ;
             69          (C) disarming a police officer, Section 76-5-102.8 ;
             70          (D) aggravated assault, Section 76-5-103 ;
             71          (E) aggravated assault by prisoner, Section 76-5-103.5 ;
             72          (F) mayhem, Section 76-5-105 ;
             73          (G) stalking, Subsection 76-5-106.5 (6);
             74          (H) terroristic threat, Section 76-5-107 ;
             75          (I) child abuse, Subsections 76-5-109 (2)(a) and (b);
             76          (J) commission of domestic violence in the presence of a child, Section 76-5-109.1 ;
             77          (K) abuse or neglect of disabled child, Section 76-5-110 ;
             78          (L) abuse, neglect, or exploitation of a vulnerable adult, Section 76-5-111 ;
             79          (M) endangerment of child or elder adult, Section 76-5-112.5 ;
             80          [(C)] (N) criminal homicide offenses under Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 2, Criminal
             81      Homicide;
             82          [(D)] (O) kidnapping, child kidnapping, and aggravated kidnapping [and kidnapping]
             83      under Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 3, Kidnapping;
             84          [(E)] (P) rape, Section 76-5-402 ;
             85          [(F)] (Q) rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.1 ;
             86          [(G)] (R) object rape, Section 76-5-402.2 ;
             87          [(H)] (S) object rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.3 ;
             88          [(I)] (T) forcible sodomy, Section 76-5-403 ;
             89          [(J)] (U) sodomy on a child, Section 76-5-403.1 ;

             90          [(K)] (V) forcible sexual abuse, Section 76-5-404 ;
             91          [(L)] (W) aggravated sexual abuse of a child and sexual abuse of a child, Section
             92      76-5-404.1 ;
             93          [(M)] (X) aggravated sexual assault, Section 76-5-405 ;
             94          [(N)] (Y) sexual exploitation of a minor, Section 76-5a-3 ;
             95          [(O)] (Z) aggravated burglary and burglary of a dwelling under Title 76, Chapter 6,
             96      Part 2, Burglary and Criminal Trespass;
             97          [(P)] (AA) aggravated robbery and robbery under Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 3, Robbery;
             98          [(Q)] (BB) theft by extortion under Subsection 76-6-406 (2)(a) or (b);
             99          [(R)] (CC) tampering with a witness under Subsection 76-8-508 (1);
             100          [(S)] (DD) retaliation against a witness, victim, or informant under Section 76-8-508.3 ;
             101          [(T)] (EE) tampering with a juror under Subsection 76-8-508.5 (2)(c);
             102          [(U)] (FF) extortion to dismiss a criminal proceeding under Section 76-8-509 if by any
             103      threat or by use of force theft by extortion has been committed pursuant to Subsections
             104      76-6-406 (2)(a), (b), and (i);
             105          [(V)] (GG) damage or destruction of school or institution of higher education property
             106      by explosives or flammable materials under Section 76-8-715 ;
             107          [(W)] (HH) possession, use, or removal of explosive, chemical, or incendiary devices
             108      under Subsections 76-10-306 (3) through (6);
             109          [(X)] (II) unlawful delivery of explosive, chemical, or incendiary devices under Section
             110      76-10-307 ;
             111          [(Y)] (JJ) purchase or possession of a dangerous weapon or handgun by a restricted
             112      person under Section 76-10-503 ;
             113          [(Z)] (KK) unlawful discharge of a firearm under Section 76-10-508 ;
             114          [(AA)] (LL) aggravated exploitation of prostitution under Subsection
             115      76-10-1306 (1)(a);
             116          [(BB)] (MM) bus hijacking under Section 76-10-1504 ; and
             117          [(CC)] (NN) discharging firearms and hurling missiles under Section 76-10-1505 ; or
             118          (ii) any felony [offense against] violation of a criminal statute of any other state, the
             119      United States, or any district, possession, or territory of the United States which would
             120      constitute a violent felony as defined in this Subsection (1) if committed in this state.

             121          (2) If a person is convicted in this state of a violent felony by plea or by verdict and the
             122      trier of fact determines beyond a reasonable doubt that the person is a habitual violent offender
             123      under this section, the penalty for a:
             124          (a) third degree felony is as if the conviction were for a first degree felony;
             125          (b) second degree felony is as if the conviction were for a first degree felony; or
             126          (c) first degree felony remains the penalty for a first degree penalty except:
             127          (i) the convicted person is not eligible for probation; and
             128          (ii) the Board of Pardons and Parole shall consider that the convicted person is a
             129      habitual violent offender as an aggravating factor [to determine] in determining the length of
             130      incarceration.
             131          (3) (a) [In all cases, notice that the prosecution intends to seek punishment as a habitual
             132      violent offender under this section shall be provided in writing and shall be served upon the
             133      defendant or his attorney not later than ten days prior to trial.] The prosecuting attorney, or
             134      grand jury if an indictment is returned, shall provide notice in the information or indictment
             135      that the defendant is subject to punishment as a habitual violent offender under this section.
             136      Notice shall include the case number, court, and date of conviction or commitment of any case
             137      relied upon by the prosecution.
             138          (b) (i) The defendant shall serve notice in writing upon the prosecutor if the defendant
             139      intends to deny that:
             140          (A) the defendant is the person who was convicted or committed;
             141          (B) the defendant was represented by counsel or had waived counsel; or
             142          (C) the defendant's plea was understandingly or voluntarily entered.
             143          (ii) The notice of denial shall be served not later than five days prior to trial and shall
             144      state in detail the defendant's contention regarding the previous conviction and commitment.
             145          (4) (a) If the defendant enters a denial under Subsection (3)(b) and if the case is tried to
             146      a jury, the jury may not be told until after it returns its verdict on the underlying felony charge,
             147      of the:
             148          (i) defendant's previous convictions for violent felonies, except as otherwise provided
             149      in the Utah Rules of Evidence; or
             150          (ii) allegation against the defendant of being a habitual violent offender.
             151          (b) If the jury's verdict is guilty, the defendant shall be tried regarding the allegation of

             152      being an habitual violent offender by the same jury, if practicable, unless the defendant waives
             153      the jury, in which case the allegation shall be tried immediately to the court.
             154          (c) (i) Prior to or at the time of sentencing the trier of fact shall determine if this section
             155      applies.
             156          (ii) The trier of fact shall consider any evidence presented at trial and the prosecution
             157      and the defendant shall be afforded an opportunity to present any necessary additional
             158      evidence.
             159          (iii) Prior to sentencing under this section, the trier of fact shall determine whether this
             160      section is applicable beyond a reasonable doubt.
             161          (d) If any previous conviction and commitment is based upon a plea of guilty or no
             162      contest, there is a rebuttable presumption that the conviction and commitment were regular and
             163      lawful in all respects if the conviction and commitment occurred after January 1, 1970. If the
             164      conviction and commitment occurred prior to January 1, 1970, the burden is on the prosecution
             165      to establish by a preponderance of the evidence that the defendant was then represented by
             166      counsel or had lawfully waived his right to have counsel present, and that his plea was
             167      understandingly and voluntarily entered.
             168          (e) If the trier of fact finds this section applicable, the court shall enter that specific
             169      finding on the record and shall indicate in the order of judgment and commitment that the
             170      defendant has been found by the trier of fact to be a habitual violent offender and is sentenced
             171      under this section.
             172          [(5) The habitual violent offender provisions of this section are an element of the
             173      offense, and proof of a defendant's conduct as a habitual violent offender is necessary at a
             174      preliminary hearing or at trial.]
             175          [(6)] (5) (a) The sentencing enhancement provisions of Sections 76-3-407 and
             176      76-3-408 apply to a felony conviction defined in Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 4, Sexual Offenses,
             177      and supersede the provisions of this section.
             178          (b) Notwithstanding Subsection [(6)] (5)(a):
             179          (i) the convictions under Sections 76-5-404 and 76-5a-3 are governed by the
             180      enhancement provisions of this section; and
             181          (ii) the "violent felony" offense defined in Subsection (1)(c) shall include any felony
             182      sexual offense violation of Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 4, Sexual Offenses, to determine if the

             183      convicted person is a habitual violent offender.
             184          Section 3. Effective date.
             185          If approved by two-thirds of all the members elected to each house, this bill takes effect
             186      upon approval by the governor, or the day following the constitutional time limit of Utah
             187      Constitution Article VII, Section 8, without the governor's signature, or in the case of a veto,
             188      the date of veto override.

Legislative Review Note
    as of 1-11-05 2:38 PM

Based on a limited legal review, this legislation has not been determined to have a high
probability of being held unconstitutional.

Office of Legislative Research and General Counsel

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