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S.B. 35






Chief Sponsor: Lyle W. Hillyard

House Sponsor: Scott L Wyatt

             8      LONG TITLE
             9      General Description:
             10          This bill enacts the Utah Uniform Child Abduction Prevention Act.
             11      Highlighted Provisions:
             12          This bill:
             13          .    sets guidelines for judges to determine when a child is at risk for abduction;
             14          .    requires a party to file a petition with the court specifying risk factors that might
             15      lead to an abduction;
             16          .    addresses specific issues for international abductions; and
             17          .    allows a court to issue a warrant to take immediate physical custody of a child it
             18      determines is at risk for abduction.
             19      Monies Appropriated in this Bill:
             20          None
             21      Other Special Clauses:
             22          This bill takes effect on January 1, 2008.
             23      Utah Code Sections Affected:
             24      ENACTS:
             25          78-62-101, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             26          78-62-102, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             27          78-62-103, Utah Code Annotated 1953

             28          78-62-104, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             29          78-62-105, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             30          78-62-106, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             31          78-62-107, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             32          78-62-108, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             33          78-62-109, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             34          78-62-110, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             35          78-62-111, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             36          78-62-112, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             38      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
             39          Section 1. Section 78-62-101 is enacted to read:

             41          78-62-101. Title.
             42          This chapter is known as the "Utah Uniform Child Abduction Prevention Act."
             43          Section 2. Section 78-62-102 is enacted to read:
             44          78-62-102. Definitions.
             45          In this chapter:
             46          (1) "Abduction" means the wrongful removal or wrongful retention of a child.
             47          (2) "Child" means an unemancipated individual who is less than 18 years of age.
             48          (3) "Child custody determination" means a judgment, decree, or other order of a court
             49      providing for the legal custody, physical custody, or visitation with respect to a child. The term
             50      includes a permanent, temporary, initial, and modification order.
             51          (4) "Child custody proceeding" means a proceeding in which legal custody, physical
             52      custody, visitation, or parent-time with respect to a child is at issue. The term includes a
             53      proceeding for divorce, dissolution of marriage, separation, neglect, abuse, dependency,
             54      guardianship, paternity, termination of parental rights, or protection from domestic violence.
             55          (5) "Court" means an entity authorized under the law of a state to establish, enforce, or
             56      modify a child custody determination.
             57          (6) "Petition" includes a motion or its equivalent.
             58          (7) "Record" means information inscribed on a tangible medium or stored in an

             59      electronic or other medium and is retrievable in perceivable form.
             60          (8) "State" means a state of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico,
             61      the United States Virgin Islands, or any territory or insular possession subject to the jurisdiction
             62      of the United States. The term includes a federally recognized Indian tribe or nation.
             63          (9) "Travel document" means records relating to a travel itinerary, including travel
             64      tickets, passes, reservations for transportation, or accommodations. The term does not include
             65      a passport or visa.
             66          (10) "Wrongful removal" means the taking of a child that breaches rights of custody,
             67      visitation, or parent-time given or recognized under the law of this state.
             68          (11) "Wrongful retention" means the keeping or concealing of a child that breaches
             69      rights of custody, visitation, or parent-time given or recognized under the law of this state.
             70          Section 3. Section 78-62-103 is enacted to read:
             71          78-62-103. Cooperation and communication among courts.
             72          Sections 78-45c-110 , 78-45c-111 , and 78-45c-112 apply to cooperation and
             73      communications among courts in proceedings under this chapter.
             74          Section 4. Section 78-62-104 is enacted to read:
             75          78-62-104. Actions for abduction prevention measures.
             76          (1) A court on its own motion may order abduction prevention measures in a child
             77      custody proceeding if the court finds that the evidence establishes a credible risk of abduction
             78      of the child.
             79          (2) A party to a child custody determination or another individual or entity having a
             80      right under the law of this state or any other state to seek a child custody determination for the
             81      child may file a petition seeking abduction prevention measures to protect the child under this
             82      chapter.
             83          (3) A prosecutor or public authority designated under Section 78-45c-315 may seek a
             84      warrant to take physical custody of a child under Section 78-62-109 or other appropriate
             85      prevention measures.
             86          Section 5. Section 78-62-105 is enacted to read:
             87          78-62-105. Jurisdiction.
             88          (1) A petition under this chapter may be filed only in a court that has jurisdiction to
             89      make a child custody determination with respect to the child at issue under Title 78, Chapter

             90      45c, Utah Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act.
             91          (2) A court of this state has temporary emergency jurisdiction under Section
             92      78-45c-204 if the court finds a credible risk of abduction.
             93          Section 6. Section 78-62-106 is enacted to read:
             94          78-62-106. Contents of petition.
             95          (1) A petition under this chapter must be verified and include a copy of any existing
             96      child custody determination, if available. The petition must specify the risk factors for
             97      abduction, including the relevant factors described in Section 78-62-107 .
             98          (2) Subject to Subsection 78-45c-209 (5), if reasonably ascertainable, the petition must
             99      contain:
             100          (a) the name, date of birth, and gender of the child;
             101          (b) the customary address and current physical location of the child;
             102          (c) the identity, customary address, and current physical location of the respondent;
             103          (d) a statement of whether a prior action to prevent abduction or domestic violence has
             104      been filed by a party or other individual or entity having custody of the child, and the date,
             105      location, and disposition of the action;
             106          (e) a statement of whether a party to the proceeding has been arrested for a crime
             107      related to domestic violence, stalking, or child abuse or neglect, and the date, location, and
             108      disposition of the case; and
             109          (f) any other information required to be submitted to the court for a child custody
             110      determination under Section 78-45c-209 .
             111          Section 7. Section 78-62-107 is enacted to read:
             112          78-62-107. Factors to determine risk of abduction.
             113          (1) In determining whether there is a credible risk of abduction of a child, the court
             114      shall consider any evidence that the petitioner or respondent:
             115          (a) has previously abducted or attempted to abduct the child;
             116          (b) has threatened to abduct the child;
             117          (c) has recently engaged in activities that may indicate a planned abduction, including:
             118          (i) abandoning employment;
             119          (ii) selling a primary residence;
             120          (iii) terminating a lease;

             121          (iv) closing bank or other financial management accounts, liquidating assets, hiding or
             122      destroying financial documents, or conducting any unusual financial activities;
             123          (v) applying for a passport or visa or obtaining travel documents for the respondent, a
             124      family member, or the child; or
             125          (vi) seeking to obtain the child's birth certificate or school or medical records;
             126          (d) has engaged in domestic violence, stalking, or child abuse or neglect;
             127          (e) has refused to follow a child custody determination;
             128          (f) lacks strong familial, financial, emotional, or cultural ties to the state or the United
             129      States;
             130          (g) has strong familial, financial, emotional, or cultural ties to another state or country;
             131          (h) is likely to take the child to a country that:
             132          (i) is not a party to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child
             133      Abduction and does not provide for the extradition of an abducting parent or for the return of
             134      an abducted child;
             135          (ii) is a party to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child
             136      Abduction but:
             137          (A) the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction is not
             138      in force between the United States and that country;
             139          (B) is noncompliant according to the most recent compliance report issued by the
             140      United States Department of State; or
             141          (C) lacks legal mechanisms for immediately and effectively enforcing a return order
             142      under the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction;
             143          (iii) poses a risk that the child's physical or emotional health or safety would be
             144      endangered in the country because of specific circumstances relating to the child or because of
             145      human rights violations committed against children;
             146          (iv) has laws or practices that would:
             147          (A) enable the respondent, without due cause, to prevent the petitioner from contacting
             148      the child;
             149          (B) restrict the petitioner from freely traveling to or exiting from the country because of
             150      the petitioner's gender, nationality, marital status, or religion; or
             151          (C) restrict the child's ability legally to leave the country after the child reaches the age

             152      of majority because of a child's gender, nationality, or religion;
             153          (v) is included by the United States Department of State on a current list of state
             154      sponsors of terrorism;
             155          (vi) does not have an official United States diplomatic presence in the country; or
             156          (vii) is engaged in active military action or war, including a civil war, to which the
             157      child may be exposed;
             158          (i) is undergoing a change in immigration or citizenship status that would adversely
             159      affect the respondent's ability to remain in the United States legally;
             160          (j) has had an application for United States citizenship denied;
             161          (k) has forged or presented misleading or false evidence on government forms or
             162      supporting documents to obtain or attempt to obtain a passport, a visa, travel documents, a
             163      Social Security card, a driver license, or other government-issued identification card or has
             164      made a misrepresentation to the United States government;
             165          (l) has used multiple names to attempt to mislead or defraud; or
             166          (m) has engaged in any other conduct the court considers relevant to the risk of
             167      abduction.
             168          (2) In the hearing on a petition under this chapter, the court shall consider any evidence
             169      that the respondent believed in good faith that the respondent's conduct was necessary to avoid
             170      imminent harm to the child or respondent and any other evidence that may be relevant to
             171      whether the respondent may be permitted to remove or retain the child.
             172          Section 8. Section 78-62-108 is enacted to read:
             173          78-62-108. Provisions and measures to prevent abduction.
             174          (1) If a petition is filed under this chapter, the court may enter an order which must
             175      include:
             176          (a) the basis for the court's exercise of jurisdiction;
             177          (b) the manner in which notice and opportunity to be heard were given to the persons
             178      entitled to notice of the proceeding;
             179          (c) a detailed description of each party's custody and visitation rights and residential
             180      arrangements for the child;
             181          (d) a provision stating that a violation of the order may subject the party in violation to
             182      civil and criminal penalties; and

             183          (e) identification of the child's country of habitual residence at the time of the issuance
             184      of the order.
             185          (2) If, at a hearing on a petition under this chapter or on the court's own motion, the
             186      court after reviewing the evidence finds a credible risk of abduction of the child, the court shall
             187      enter an abduction prevention order. The order must include the provisions required by
             188      Subsection (1) and measures and conditions, including those in Subsections (3), (4), and (5),
             189      that are reasonably calculated to prevent abduction of the child, giving due consideration to the
             190      custody, visitation, and parent-time rights of the parties. The court shall consider the age of the
             191      child, the potential harm to the child from an abduction, the legal and practical difficulties of
             192      returning the child to the jurisdiction if abducted, and the reasons for the potential abduction,
             193      including evidence of domestic violence, stalking, or child abuse or neglect.
             194          (3) An abduction prevention order may include one or more of the following:
             195          (a) an imposition of travel restrictions that require that a party traveling with the child
             196      outside a designated geographical area provide the other party with the following:
             197          (i) the travel itinerary of the child;
             198          (ii) a list of physical addresses and telephone numbers at which the child can be
             199      reached at specified times; and
             200          (iii) copies of all travel documents;
             201          (b) a prohibition of the respondent directly or indirectly:
             202          (i) removing the child from this state, the United States, or another geographic area
             203      without permission of the court or the petitioner's written consent;
             204          (ii) removing or retaining the child in violation of a child custody determination;
             205          (iii) removing the child from school or a child-care or similar facility; or
             206          (iv) approaching the child at any location other than a site designated for supervised
             207      visitation;
             208          (c) a requirement that a party to register the order in another state as a prerequisite to
             209      allowing the child to travel to that state;
             210          (d) with regard to the child's passport:
             211          (i) a direction that the petitioner place the child's name in the United States Department
             212      of State's Child Passport Issuance Alert Program;
             213          (ii) a requirement that the respondent surrender to the court or the petitioner's attorney

             214      any United States or foreign passport issued in the child's name, including a passport issued in
             215      the name of both the parent and the child; and
             216          (iii) a prohibition upon the respondent from applying on behalf of the child for a new
             217      or replacement passport or visa;
             218          (e) as a prerequisite to exercising custody, visitation, or parent-time, a requirement that
             219      the respondent provide:
             220          (i) to the United States Department of State Office of Children's Issues and the relevant
             221      foreign consulate or embassy, an authenticated copy of the order detailing passport and travel
             222      restrictions for the child;
             223          (ii) to the court:
             224          (A) proof that the respondent has provided the information in Subsection (3)(e)(i); and
             225          (B) an acknowledgment in a record from the relevant foreign consulate or embassy that
             226      no passport application has been made, or passport issued, on behalf of the child;
             227          (iii) to the petitioner, proof of registration with the United States Embassy or other
             228      United States diplomatic presence in the destination country and with the Central Authority for
             229      the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, if that
             230      convention is in effect between the United States and the destination country, unless one of the
             231      parties objects; and
             232          (iv) a written waiver under the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. Section 552a, with respect to any
             233      document, application, or other information pertaining to the child authorizing its disclosure to
             234      the court and the petitioner; and
             235          (f) upon the petitioner's request, a requirement that the respondent obtain an order from
             236      the relevant foreign country containing terms identical to the child custody determination
             237      issued in the United States.
             238          (4) In an abduction prevention order, the court may impose conditions on the exercise
             239      of custody or visitation that:
             240          (a) limit visitation or require that visitation with the child by the respondent be
             241      supervised until the court finds that supervision is no longer necessary and order the respondent
             242      to pay the costs of supervision;
             243          (b) require the respondent to post a bond or provide other security in an amount
             244      sufficient to serve as a financial deterrent to abduction, the proceeds of which may be used to

             245      pay for the reasonable expenses of recovery of the child, including reasonable attorney fees and
             246      costs if there is an abduction; and
             247          (c) require the respondent to obtain education on the potentially harmful effects to the
             248      child from abduction.
             249          (5) To prevent imminent abduction of a child, a court may:
             250          (a) issue a warrant to take physical custody of the child under Section 78-62-109 or the
             251      law of this state other than this chapter;
             252          (b) direct the use of law enforcement to take any action reasonably necessary to locate
             253      the child, obtain return of the child, or enforce a custody determination under this chapter or
             254      the law of this state other than this chapter; or
             255          (c) grant any other relief allowed under the law of this state other than this chapter.
             256          (6) The remedies provided in this chapter are cumulative and do not affect the
             257      availability of other remedies to prevent abduction.
             258          Section 9. Section 78-62-109 is enacted to read:
             259          78-62-109. Warrant to take physical custody of child.
             260          (1) If a petition under this chapter contains allegations, and the court finds that there is
             261      a credible risk that the child is imminently likely to be wrongfully removed, the court may issue
             262      an ex parte warrant to take physical custody of the child.
             263          (2) The respondent on a petition under Subsection (1) must be afforded an opportunity
             264      to be heard at the earliest possible time after the ex parte warrant is executed, but not later than
             265      the next judicial day unless a hearing on that date is impossible. In that event, the court shall
             266      hold the hearing on the first judicial day possible.
             267          (3) An ex parte warrant under Subsection (1) to take physical custody of a child must:
             268          (a) recite the facts upon which a determination of a credible risk of imminent wrongful
             269      removal of the child is based;
             270          (b) direct law enforcement officers to take physical custody of the child immediately;
             271          (c) state the date and time for the hearing on the petition; and
             272          (d) provide for the safe interim placement of the child pending further order of the
             273      court.
             274          (4) If feasible, before issuing a warrant and before determining the placement of the
             275      child after the warrant is executed, the court may order a search of the relevant databases of the

             276      National Crime Information Center system and similar state databases to determine if either the
             277      petitioner or respondent has a history of domestic violence, stalking, or child abuse or neglect.
             278          (5) The petition and warrant must be served on the respondent when or immediately
             279      after the child is taken into physical custody.
             280          (6) A warrant to take physical custody of a child, issued by this state or another state, is
             281      enforceable throughout this state. If the court finds that a less intrusive remedy will not be
             282      effective, it may authorize law enforcement officers to enter private property to take physical
             283      custody of the child. If required by exigent circumstances, the court may authorize law
             284      enforcement officers to make a forcible entry at any hour.
             285          (7) If the court finds, after a hearing, that a petitioner sought an ex parte warrant under
             286      Subsection (1) for the purpose of harassment or in bad faith, the court may award the
             287      respondent reasonable attorney fees, costs, and expenses.
             288          (8) This chapter does not affect the availability of relief allowed under the law of this
             289      state other than this chapter.
             290          Section 10. Section 78-62-110 is enacted to read:
             291          78-62-110. Duration of abduction prevention order.
             292          An abduction prevention order remains in effect until the earliest of:
             293          (1) the time stated in the order;
             294          (2) the emancipation of the child;
             295          (3) the child's attaining 18 years of age; or
             296          (4) the time the order is modified, revoked, vacated, or superseded by a court with
             297      jurisdiction under Sections 78-45c-201 through 78-45c-203 .
             298          Section 11. Section 78-62-111 is enacted to read:
             299          78-62-111. Uniformity of application and construction.
             300          This chapter is a uniform act. In applying and construing it, consideration must be
             301      given to the need to promote uniformity of the law with respect to its subject matter among
             302      states that enact it.
             303          Section 12. Section 78-62-112 is enacted to read:
             304          78-62-112. Relation to electronic signatures in global and national commerce act.
             305          This chapter modifies, limits, and supersedes the federal Electronic Signatures in
             306      Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. Section 7001, et seq., but does not modify,

             307      limit, or supersede Section 101(c) of the act, 15 U.S.C. Section 7001(c), or authorize electronic
             308      delivery of any of the notices described in Section 103(b) of that act, 15 U.S.C. Section
             309      7003(b).
             310          Section 13. Effective date.
             311          This bill takes effect on January 1, 2008.

Legislative Review Note
    as of 11-16-06 10:04 AM

Office of Legislative Research and General Counsel

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