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H.B. 14 Enrolled

             1     

DISCHARGE OF FIREARM AMENDMENTS

             2     
2008 GENERAL SESSION

             3     
STATE OF UTAH

             4     
Chief Sponsor: Carl Wimmer

             5     
Senate Sponsor: Mark B. Madsen

             6     
             7      LONG TITLE
             8      General Description:
             9          This bill modifies the Utah Criminal Code to provide an enhanced penalty for felony
             10      offenses involving discharge of a firearm.
             11      Highlighted Provisions:
             12          This bill:
             13          .    provides that having the permission of the person in charge of the property when
             14      discharging a firearm is only a defense to a misdemeanor offense of discharging a
             15      firearm, not a felony offense;
             16          .    modifies provisions relating to felony discharge of a firearm by describing conduct
             17      that constitutes a first, second, or third degree felony and describing enhanced
             18      penalties for these offenses;
             19          .    describes circumstances under which discharge of a dangerous weapon or a firearm
             20      from a vehicle is not a crime; and
             21          .    makes technical changes.
             22      Monies Appropriated in this Bill:
             23          None
             24      Other Special Clauses:
             25          None
             26      Utah Code Sections Affected:
             27      AMENDS:
             28          53-3-220, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2007, Chapter 261
             29          76-5-203, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2007, Chapter 340


             30          76-10-508, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2005, Chapter 220
             31      ENACTS:
             32          76-10-508.1, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             33     
             34      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
             35          Section 1. Section 53-3-220 is amended to read:
             36           53-3-220. Offenses requiring mandatory revocation, denial, suspension, or
             37      disqualification of license -- Offense requiring an extension of period -- Hearing --
             38      Limited driving privileges.
             39          (1) (a) The division shall immediately revoke or, when this chapter or Title 41, Chapter
             40      6a, Traffic Code, specifically provides for denial, suspension, or disqualification, the division
             41      shall deny, suspend, or disqualify the license of a person upon receiving a record of the person's
             42      conviction for [any of the following offenses]:
             43          (i) manslaughter or negligent homicide resulting from driving a motor vehicle, or
             44      automobile homicide under Section 76-5-207 ;
             45          (ii) driving or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the
             46      influence of alcohol, any drug, or combination of them to a degree that renders the person
             47      incapable of safely driving a motor vehicle as prohibited in Section 41-6a-502 or as prohibited in
             48      an ordinance that complies with the requirements of Subsection 41-6a-510 (1);
             49          (iii) driving or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while having a blood
             50      or breath alcohol content prohibited in Section 41-6a-502 or as prohibited in an ordinance that
             51      complies with the requirements of Subsection 41-6a-510 (1);
             52          (iv) perjury or the making of a false affidavit to the division under this chapter, Title 41,
             53      Motor Vehicles, or any other law of this state requiring the registration of motor vehicles or
             54      regulating driving on highways;
             55          (v) any felony under the motor vehicle laws of this state;
             56          (vi) any other felony in which a motor vehicle is used to facilitate the offense;
             57          (vii) failure to stop and render aid as required under the laws of this state if a motor


             58      vehicle accident results in the death or personal injury of another;
             59          (viii) two charges of reckless driving committed within a period of 12 months; but if
             60      upon a first conviction of reckless driving the judge or justice recommends suspension of the
             61      convicted person's license, the division may after a hearing suspend the license for a period of
             62      three months;
             63          (ix) failure to bring a motor vehicle to a stop at the command of a peace officer as
             64      required in Section 41-6a-210 ;
             65          (x) any offense specified in Part 4, Uniform Commercial Driver License Act, that
             66      requires disqualification;
             67          (xi) a felony violation of Section 76-10-508 or 76-10-508.1 involving discharging or
             68      allowing the discharge of a firearm from a vehicle [in violation of Subsection 76-10-508 (2)];
             69          (xii) using, allowing the use of, or causing to be used any explosive, chemical, or
             70      incendiary device from a vehicle in violation of Subsection 76-10-306 (4)(b);
             71          (xiii) operating or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while having any
             72      measurable controlled substance or metabolite of a controlled substance in the person's body in
             73      violation of Section 41-6a-517 ;
             74          (xiv) until July 30, 2015, operating or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle
             75      while having any alcohol in the person's body in violation of Section 53-3-232 ;
             76          (xv) operating or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while having any
             77      measurable or detectable amount of alcohol in the person's body in violation of Section
             78      41-6a-530 ;
             79          (xvi) engaging in a motor vehicle speed contest or exhibition of speed on a highway in
             80      violation of Section 41-6a-606 ; [and] or
             81          (xvii) operating or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle in this state
             82      without an ignition interlock system in violation of Section 41-6a-518.2 .
             83          (b) The division shall immediately revoke the license of a person upon receiving a
             84      record of an adjudication under Title 78, Chapter 3a, Juvenile Court Act of 1996, for [any of
             85      the following offenses]:


             86          (i) a felony violation of Section 76-10-508 or 76-10-508.1 involving discharging or
             87      allowing the discharge of a firearm from a vehicle [in violation of Subsection 76-10-508 (2);
             88      and]; or
             89          (ii) using, allowing the use of, or causing to be used any explosive, chemical, or
             90      incendiary device from a vehicle in violation of Subsection 76-10-306 (4)(b).
             91          (c) Except when action is taken under Section 53-3-219 for the same offense, the
             92      division shall immediately suspend for six months the license of a person upon receiving a
             93      record of conviction for [any of the following offenses]:
             94          (i) any violation of:
             95          (A) Title 58, Chapter 37, Utah Controlled Substances Act;
             96          (B) Title 58, Chapter 37a, Utah Drug Paraphernalia Act;
             97          (C) Title 58, Chapter 37b, Imitation Controlled Substances Act;
             98          (D) Title 58, Chapter 37c, Utah Controlled Substance Precursor Act; or
             99          (E) Title 58, Chapter 37d, Clandestine Drug Lab Act; or
             100          (ii) any criminal offense that prohibits:
             101          (A) possession, distribution, manufacture, cultivation, sale, or transfer of any substance
             102      that is prohibited under the acts described in Subsection (1)(c)(i); or
             103          (B) the attempt or conspiracy to possess, distribute, manufacture, cultivate, sell, or
             104      transfer any substance that is prohibited under the acts described in Subsection (1)(c)(i).
             105          (2) The division shall extend the period of the first denial, suspension, revocation, or
             106      disqualification for an additional like period, to a maximum of one year for each subsequent
             107      occurrence, upon receiving:
             108          (a) a record of the conviction of any person on a charge of driving a motor vehicle
             109      while the person's license is denied, suspended, revoked, or disqualified;
             110          (b) a record of a conviction of the person for any violation of the motor vehicle law in
             111      which the person was involved as a driver;
             112          (c) a report of an arrest of the person for any violation of the motor vehicle law in
             113      which the person was involved as a driver; or


             114          (d) a report of an accident in which the person was involved as a driver.
             115          (3) When the division receives a report under Subsection (2)(c) or (d) that a person is
             116      driving while the person's license is denied, suspended, disqualified, or revoked, the person is
             117      entitled to a hearing regarding the extension of the time of denial, suspension, disqualification,
             118      or revocation originally imposed under Section 53-3-221 .
             119          (4) (a) The division may extend to a person the limited privilege of driving a motor
             120      vehicle to and from the person's place of employment or within other specified limits on
             121      recommendation of the trial judge in any case where a person is convicted of any of the offenses
             122      referred to in Subsections (1) and (2) except:
             123          (i) automobile homicide under Subsection (1)(a)(i);
             124          (ii) those offenses referred to in Subsections (1)(a)(ii), (a)(iii), (a)(xi), (a)(xii), (a)(xiii),
             125      (1)(b), and (1)(c); and
             126          (iii) those offenses referred to in Subsection (2) when the original denial, suspension,
             127      revocation, or disqualification was imposed because of a violation of Section 41-6a-502 ,
             128      41-6a-517 , a local ordinance which complies with the requirements of Subsection 41-6a-510 (1),
             129      Section 41-6a-520 , [or] Section 76-5-207 , or a criminal prohibition that the person was charged
             130      with violating as a result of a plea bargain after having been originally charged with violating
             131      one or more of these sections or ordinances.
             132          (b) This discretionary privilege is limited to when undue hardship would result from a
             133      failure to grant the privilege and may be granted only once to any [individual] person during any
             134      single period of denial, suspension, revocation, or disqualification, or extension of that denial,
             135      suspension, revocation, or disqualification.
             136          (c) A limited CDL may not be granted to [an individual] a person disqualified under
             137      Part 4, Uniform Commercial Driver License Act, or whose license has been revoked,
             138      suspended, cancelled, or denied under this chapter.
             139          Section 2. Section 76-5-203 is amended to read:
             140           76-5-203. Murder.
             141          (1) As used in this section, "predicate offense" means:


             142          (a) a clandestine drug lab violation [of] under Section 58-37d-4 or 58-37d-5 [,
             143      Clandestine Drug Lab Act];
             144          (b) child abuse, under Subsection 76-5-109 (2)(a), when the victim is younger than 18
             145      years of age;
             146          (c) kidnapping under Section 76-5-301 ;
             147          (d) child kidnapping under Section 76-5-301.1 ;
             148          (e) aggravated kidnapping under Section 76-5-302 ;
             149          (f) rape of a child under Section 76-5-402.1 ;
             150          (g) object rape of a child under Section 76-5-402.3 ;
             151          (h) sodomy upon a child under Section 76-5-403.1 ;
             152          (i) forcible sexual abuse under Section 76-5-404 ;
             153          (j) sexual abuse of a child or aggravated sexual abuse of a child under Section
             154      76-5-404.1 ;
             155          (k) rape under Section 76-5-402 ;
             156          (l) object rape under Section 76-5-402.2 ;
             157          (m) forcible sodomy under Section 76-5-403 ;
             158          (n) aggravated sexual assault under Section 76-5-405 ;
             159          (o) arson under Section 76-6-102 ;
             160          (p) aggravated arson under Section 76-6-103 ;
             161          (q) burglary under Section 76-6-202 ;
             162          (r) aggravated burglary under Section 76-6-203 ;
             163          (s) robbery under Section 76-6-301 ;
             164          (t) aggravated robbery under Section 76-6-302 ;
             165          (u) escape or aggravated escape under Section 76-8-309 ; or
             166          (v) a felony violation of [Subsection] Section 76-10-508 [(2)] or 76-10-508.1 regarding
             167      discharge of a firearm or dangerous weapon.
             168          (2) Criminal homicide constitutes murder if:
             169          (a) the actor intentionally or knowingly causes the death of another;


             170          (b) intending to cause serious bodily injury to another, the actor commits an act clearly
             171      dangerous to human life that causes the death of another;
             172          (c) acting under circumstances evidencing a depraved indifference to human life, the
             173      actor knowingly engages in conduct which creates a grave risk of death to another and thereby
             174      causes the death of another;
             175          (d) (i) the actor is engaged in the commission, attempted commission, or immediate
             176      flight from the commission or attempted commission of any predicate offense, or is a party to
             177      the predicate offense;
             178          (ii) a person other than a party as defined in Section 76-2-202 is killed in the course of
             179      the commission, attempted commission, or immediate flight from the commission or attempted
             180      commission of any predicate offense; and
             181          (iii) the actor acted with the intent required as an element of the predicate offense;
             182          (e) the actor recklessly causes the death of a peace officer while in the commission or
             183      attempted commission of:
             184          (i) an assault against a peace officer under Section 76-5-102.4 ; or
             185          (ii) interference with a peace officer while making a lawful arrest under Section
             186      76-8-305 if the actor uses force against a peace officer;
             187          (f) commits a homicide which would be aggravated murder, but the offense is reduced
             188      pursuant to Subsection 76-5-202 (4); or
             189          (g) the actor commits aggravated murder, but special mitigation is established under
             190      Section 76-5-205.5 .
             191          (3) (a) Murder is a first degree felony.
             192          (b) A person who is convicted of murder shall be sentenced to imprisonment for an
             193      indeterminate term of not less than 15 years and which may be for life.
             194          (4) (a) It is an affirmative defense to a charge of murder or attempted murder that the
             195      defendant caused the death of another or attempted to cause the death of another:
             196          (i) under the influence of extreme emotional distress for which there is a reasonable
             197      explanation or excuse; or


             198          (ii) under a reasonable belief that the circumstances provided a legal justification or
             199      excuse for his conduct although the conduct was not legally justifiable or excusable under the
             200      existing circumstances.
             201          (b) Under Subsection (4)(a)(i) emotional distress does not include:
             202          (i) a condition resulting from mental illness as defined in Section 76-2-305 ; or
             203          (ii) distress that is substantially caused by the defendant's own conduct.
             204          (c) The reasonableness of an explanation or excuse under Subsection (4)(a)(i) or the
             205      reasonable belief of the actor under Subsection (4)(a)(ii) shall be determined from the viewpoint
             206      of a reasonable person under the then existing circumstances.
             207          (d) This affirmative defense reduces charges only as follows:
             208          (i) murder to manslaughter; and
             209          (ii) attempted murder to attempted manslaughter.
             210          Section 3. Section 76-10-508 is amended to read:
             211           76-10-508. Discharge of firearm from a vehicle, near a highway, or in direction of
             212      any person, building, or vehicle -- Penalties.
             213          (1) (a) A person may not discharge any kind of dangerous weapon or firearm:
             214          (i) from an automobile or other vehicle;
             215          (ii) from, upon, or across any highway;
             216          (iii) at any road signs placed upon any highways of the state;
             217          (iv) at any communications equipment or property of public utilities including facilities,
             218      lines, poles, or devices of transmission or distribution;
             219          (v) at railroad equipment or facilities including any sign or signal;
             220          (vi) within Utah State Park buildings, designated camp or picnic sites, overlooks, golf
             221      courses, boat ramps, and developed beaches; or
             222          (vii) without written permission to discharge the dangerous weapon from the owner or
             223      person in charge of the property within 600 feet of:
             224          (A) a house, dwelling, or any other building; or
             225          (B) any structure in which a domestic animal is kept or fed, including a barn, poultry


             226      yard, corral, feeding pen, or stockyard.
             227          (b) It [shall be] is a defense to any charge for violating this section that the person being
             228      accused had actual permission of the owner or person in charge of the property at the time in
             229      question.
             230          (2) A violation of any provision of [this section] Subsection (1) is a class B
             231      misdemeanor [unless the actor discharges a firearm under any of the following circumstances
             232      not amounting to criminal homicide or attempted criminal homicide, in which case it is a third
             233      degree felony and the convicted person shall be sentenced to an enhanced minimum term of
             234      three years in prison:].
             235          [(a) the actor discharges a firearm in the direction of any person or persons, knowing or
             236      having reason to believe that any person may be endangered;]
             237          [(b) the actor, with intent to intimidate or harass another or with intent to damage a
             238      habitable structure as defined in Subsection 76-6-101 (2), discharges a firearm in the direction of
             239      any building; or]
             240          [(c) the actor, with intent to intimidate or harass another, discharges a firearm in the
             241      direction of any vehicle.]
             242          (3) [The] In addition to any other penalties, the court shall:
             243          (a) notify the Driver License Division of the conviction for purposes of any revocation,
             244      denial, suspension, or disqualification of a driver license under [Section] Subsection
             245      53-3-220 (1)(a)(xi); and
             246          (b) specify in court at the time of sentencing the length of the revocation under
             247      Subsection 53-3-225 (1)(c).
             248          (4) This section does not apply to a person who:
             249          (a) [who] discharges any kind of firearm when that person is in lawful defense of self or
             250      others; [or]
             251          (b) [who] is performing official duties as provided in Sections 23-20-1.5 and 76-10-523
             252      and as otherwise provided by law[.]; or
             253          (c) discharges a dangerous weapon or firearm from an automobile or other vehicle, if:


             254          (i) the discharge occurs at a firing range or training ground;
             255          (ii) at no time after the discharge does the projectile that is discharged cross over or
             256      stop at a location other than within the boundaries of the firing range or training ground
             257      described in Subsection (4)(c)(i);
             258          (iii) the discharge is made as practice or training for a lawful purpose;
             259          (iv) the discharge and the location, time, and manner of the discharge are approved by
             260      the owner or operator of the firing range or training ground prior to the discharge; and
             261          (v) the discharge is not made in violation of Subsection (1).
             262          Section 4. Section 76-10-508.1 is enacted to read:
             263          76-10-508.1. Felony discharge of a firearm -- Penalties.
             264          (1) Except as provided under Subsection (2) or (3), a person who discharges a firearm
             265      under any of the circumstances not amounting to criminal homicide or attempted criminal
             266      homicide is guilty of a third degree felony punishable by imprisonment for a term of not less
             267      than three years nor more than five years if:
             268          (a) the actor discharges a firearm in the direction of any person or persons, knowing or
             269      having reason to believe that any person may be endangered by the discharge of the firearm;
             270          (b) the actor, with intent to intimidate or harass another or with intent to damage a
             271      habitable structure as defined in Section 76-6-101 , discharges a firearm in the direction of any
             272      person or habitable structure; or
             273          (c) the actor, with intent to intimidate or harass another, discharges a firearm in the
             274      direction of any vehicle.
             275          (2) A violation of Subsection (1) which causes injury to any person is a second degree
             276      felony punishable by imprisonment for a term of not less than three years nor more than fifteen
             277      years.
             278          (3) A violation of Subsection (1) which causes serious bodily injury to any person is a
             279      first degree felony.
             280          (4) In addition to any other penalties for a violation of this section, the court shall:
             281          (a) notify the Driver License Division of the conviction for purposes of any revocation,


             282      denial, suspension, or disqualification of a driver license under Subsection 53-3-220 (1)(a)(xi);
             283      and
             284          (b) specify in court at the time of sentencing the length of the revocation under
             285      Subsection 53-3-225 (1)(c).
             286          (5) This section does not apply to a person:
             287          (a) who discharges any kind of firearm when that person is in lawful defense of self or
             288      others;
             289          (b) who is performing official duties as provided in Section 23-20-1.5 or 76-10-523 or
             290      as otherwise authorized by law;
             291          (c) discharges a dangerous weapon or firearm from an automobile or other vehicle, if:
             292          (i) the discharge occurs at a firing range or training ground;
             293          (ii) at no time after the discharge does the projectile that is discharged cross over or
             294      stop at a location other than within the boundaries of the firing range or training ground
             295      described in Subsection (5)(c)(i);
             296          (iii) the discharge is made as practice or training for a lawful purpose;
             297          (iv) the discharge and the location, time, and manner of the discharge are approved by
             298      the owner or operator of the firing range or training ground prior to the discharge; and
             299          (v) the discharge is not made in violation of Subsection (1).


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