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H.B. 14

             1     

DISCHARGE OF FIREARM AMENDMENTS

             2     
2008 GENERAL SESSION

             3     
STATE OF UTAH

             4     
Chief Sponsor: Carl Wimmer

             5     
Senate Sponsor: Mark B. Madsen

             6     
             7      LONG TITLE
             8      Committee Note:
             9          The Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Interim Committee recommended this bill.
             10      General Description:
             11          This bill modifies the Utah Criminal Code to provide an enhanced penalty for felony
             12      offenses involving discharge of a firearm.
             13      Highlighted Provisions:
             14          This bill:
             15          .    provides that having the permission of the person in charge of the property when
             16      discharging a firearm is only a defense to a misdemeanor offense of discharging a
             17      firearm, not a felony offense;
             18          .    modifies provisions relating to felony discharge of a firearm by describing conduct
             19      that constitutes a first, second, or third degree felony and describing enhanced
             20      penalties for these offenses;
             21          .    describes circumstances under which discharge of a dangerous weapon or a firearm
             22      from a vehicle is not a crime; and
             23          .    makes technical changes.
             24      Monies Appropriated in this Bill:
             25          None
             26      Other Special Clauses:
             27          None


             28      Utah Code Sections Affected:
             29      AMENDS:
             30          53-3-220, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2007, Chapter 261
             31          76-5-203, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2007, Chapter 340
             32          76-10-508, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2005, Chapter 220
             33     
             34      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
             35          Section 1. Section 53-3-220 is amended to read:
             36           53-3-220. Offenses requiring mandatory revocation, denial, suspension, or
             37      disqualification of license -- Offense requiring an extension of period -- Hearing --
             38      Limited driving privileges.
             39          (1) (a) The division shall immediately revoke or, when this chapter or Title 41, Chapter
             40      6a, Traffic Code, specifically provides for denial, suspension, or disqualification, the division
             41      shall deny, suspend, or disqualify the license of a person upon receiving a record of the person's
             42      conviction for [any of the following offenses]:
             43          (i) manslaughter or negligent homicide resulting from driving a motor vehicle, or
             44      automobile homicide under Section 76-5-207 ;
             45          (ii) driving or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while under the
             46      influence of alcohol, any drug, or combination of them to a degree that renders the person
             47      incapable of safely driving a motor vehicle as prohibited in Section 41-6a-502 or as prohibited
             48      in an ordinance that complies with the requirements of Subsection 41-6a-510 (1);
             49          (iii) driving or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while having a blood
             50      or breath alcohol content prohibited in Section 41-6a-502 or as prohibited in an ordinance that
             51      complies with the requirements of Subsection 41-6a-510 (1);
             52          (iv) perjury or the making of a false affidavit to the division under this chapter, Title
             53      41, Motor Vehicles, or any other law of this state requiring the registration of motor vehicles or
             54      regulating driving on highways;
             55          (v) any felony under the motor vehicle laws of this state;
             56          (vi) any other felony in which a motor vehicle is used to facilitate the offense;
             57          (vii) failure to stop and render aid as required under the laws of this state if a motor
             58      vehicle accident results in the death or personal injury of another;


             59          (viii) two charges of reckless driving committed within a period of 12 months; but if
             60      upon a first conviction of reckless driving the judge or justice recommends suspension of the
             61      convicted person's license, the division may after a hearing suspend the license for a period of
             62      three months;
             63          (ix) failure to bring a motor vehicle to a stop at the command of a peace officer as
             64      required in Section 41-6a-210 ;
             65          (x) any offense specified in Part 4, Uniform Commercial Driver License Act, that
             66      requires disqualification;
             67          (xi) a felony violation of Section 76-10-508 involving discharging or allowing the
             68      discharge of a firearm from a vehicle [in violation of Subsection 76-10-508 (2)];
             69          (xii) using, allowing the use of, or causing to be used any explosive, chemical, or
             70      incendiary device from a vehicle in violation of Subsection 76-10-306 (4)(b);
             71          (xiii) operating or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while having any
             72      measurable controlled substance or metabolite of a controlled substance in the person's body in
             73      violation of Section 41-6a-517 ;
             74          (xiv) until July 30, 2015, operating or being in actual physical control of a motor
             75      vehicle while having any alcohol in the person's body in violation of Section 53-3-232 ;
             76          (xv) operating or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle while having any
             77      measurable or detectable amount of alcohol in the person's body in violation of Section
             78      41-6a-530 ;
             79          (xvi) engaging in a motor vehicle speed contest or exhibition of speed on a highway in
             80      violation of Section 41-6a-606 ; [and] or
             81          (xvii) operating or being in actual physical control of a motor vehicle in this state
             82      without an ignition interlock system in violation of Section 41-6a-518.2 .
             83          (b) The division shall immediately revoke the license of a person upon receiving a
             84      record of an adjudication under Title 78, Chapter 3a, Juvenile Court Act of 1996, for [any of
             85      the following offenses]:
             86          (i) a felony violation of Section 76-10-508 involving discharging or allowing the
             87      discharge of a firearm from a vehicle [in violation of Subsection 76-10-508 (2); and]; or
             88          (ii) using, allowing the use of, or causing to be used any explosive, chemical, or
             89      incendiary device from a vehicle in violation of Subsection 76-10-306 (4)(b).


             90          (c) Except when action is taken under Section 53-3-219 for the same offense, the
             91      division shall immediately suspend for six months the license of a person upon receiving a
             92      record of conviction for [any of the following offenses]:
             93          (i) any violation of:
             94          (A) Title 58, Chapter 37, Utah Controlled Substances Act;
             95          (B) Title 58, Chapter 37a, Utah Drug Paraphernalia Act;
             96          (C) Title 58, Chapter 37b, Imitation Controlled Substances Act;
             97          (D) Title 58, Chapter 37c, Utah Controlled Substance Precursor Act; or
             98          (E) Title 58, Chapter 37d, Clandestine Drug Lab Act; or
             99          (ii) any criminal offense that prohibits:
             100          (A) possession, distribution, manufacture, cultivation, sale, or transfer of any substance
             101      that is prohibited under the acts described in Subsection (1)(c)(i); or
             102          (B) the attempt or conspiracy to possess, distribute, manufacture, cultivate, sell, or
             103      transfer any substance that is prohibited under the acts described in Subsection (1)(c)(i).
             104          (2) The division shall extend the period of the first denial, suspension, revocation, or
             105      disqualification for an additional like period, to a maximum of one year for each subsequent
             106      occurrence, upon receiving:
             107          (a) a record of the conviction of any person on a charge of driving a motor vehicle
             108      while the person's license is denied, suspended, revoked, or disqualified;
             109          (b) a record of a conviction of the person for any violation of the motor vehicle law in
             110      which the person was involved as a driver;
             111          (c) a report of an arrest of the person for any violation of the motor vehicle law in
             112      which the person was involved as a driver; or
             113          (d) a report of an accident in which the person was involved as a driver.
             114          (3) When the division receives a report under Subsection (2)(c) or (d) that a person is
             115      driving while the person's license is denied, suspended, disqualified, or revoked, the person is
             116      entitled to a hearing regarding the extension of the time of denial, suspension, disqualification,
             117      or revocation originally imposed under Section 53-3-221 .
             118          (4) (a) The division may extend to a person the limited privilege of driving a motor
             119      vehicle to and from the person's place of employment or within other specified limits on
             120      recommendation of the trial judge in any case where a person is convicted of any of the


             121      offenses referred to in Subsections (1) and (2) except:
             122          (i) automobile homicide under Subsection (1)(a)(i);
             123          (ii) those offenses referred to in Subsections (1)(a)(ii), (a)(iii), (a)(xi), (a)(xii), (a)(xiii),
             124      (1)(b), and (1)(c); and
             125          (iii) those offenses referred to in Subsection (2) when the original denial, suspension,
             126      revocation, or disqualification was imposed because of a violation of Section 41-6a-502 ,
             127      41-6a-517 , a local ordinance which complies with the requirements of Subsection
             128      41-6a-510 (1), Section 41-6a-520 , [or] Section 76-5-207 , or a criminal prohibition that the
             129      person was charged with violating as a result of a plea bargain after having been originally
             130      charged with violating one or more of these sections or ordinances.
             131          (b) This discretionary privilege is limited to when undue hardship would result from a
             132      failure to grant the privilege and may be granted only once to any [individual] person during
             133      any single period of denial, suspension, revocation, or disqualification, or extension of that
             134      denial, suspension, revocation, or disqualification.
             135          (c) A limited CDL may not be granted to [an individual] a person disqualified under
             136      Part 4, Uniform Commercial Driver License Act, or whose license has been revoked,
             137      suspended, cancelled, or denied under this chapter.
             138          Section 2. Section 76-5-203 is amended to read:
             139           76-5-203. Murder.
             140          (1) As used in this section, "predicate offense" means:
             141          (a) a clandestine drug lab violation [of] under Section 58-37d-4 or 58-37d-5 [,
             142      Clandestine Drug Lab Act];
             143          (b) child abuse, under Subsection 76-5-109 (2)(a), when the victim is younger than 18
             144      years of age;
             145          (c) kidnapping under Section 76-5-301 ;
             146          (d) child kidnapping under Section 76-5-301.1 ;
             147          (e) aggravated kidnapping under Section 76-5-302 ;
             148          (f) rape of a child under Section 76-5-402.1 ;
             149          (g) object rape of a child under Section 76-5-402.3 ;
             150          (h) sodomy upon a child under Section 76-5-403.1 ;
             151          (i) forcible sexual abuse under Section 76-5-404 ;


             152          (j) sexual abuse of a child or aggravated sexual abuse of a child under Section
             153      76-5-404.1 ;
             154          (k) rape under Section 76-5-402 ;
             155          (l) object rape under Section 76-5-402.2 ;
             156          (m) forcible sodomy under Section 76-5-403 ;
             157          (n) aggravated sexual assault under Section 76-5-405 ;
             158          (o) arson under Section 76-6-102 ;
             159          (p) aggravated arson under Section 76-6-103 ;
             160          (q) burglary under Section 76-6-202 ;
             161          (r) aggravated burglary under Section 76-6-203 ;
             162          (s) robbery under Section 76-6-301 ;
             163          (t) aggravated robbery under Section 76-6-302 ;
             164          (u) escape or aggravated escape under Section 76-8-309 ; or
             165          (v) a felony violation of [Subsection ] Section 76-10-508 [(2)] regarding discharge of a
             166      firearm or dangerous weapon.
             167          (2) Criminal homicide constitutes murder if:
             168          (a) the actor intentionally or knowingly causes the death of another;
             169          (b) intending to cause serious bodily injury to another, the actor commits an act clearly
             170      dangerous to human life that causes the death of another;
             171          (c) acting under circumstances evidencing a depraved indifference to human life, the
             172      actor knowingly engages in conduct which creates a grave risk of death to another and thereby
             173      causes the death of another;
             174          (d) (i) the actor is engaged in the commission, attempted commission, or immediate
             175      flight from the commission or attempted commission of any predicate offense, or is a party to
             176      the predicate offense;
             177          (ii) a person other than a party as defined in Section 76-2-202 is killed in the course of
             178      the commission, attempted commission, or immediate flight from the commission or attempted
             179      commission of any predicate offense; and
             180          (iii) the actor acted with the intent required as an element of the predicate offense;
             181          (e) the actor recklessly causes the death of a peace officer while in the commission or
             182      attempted commission of:


             183          (i) an assault against a peace officer under Section 76-5-102.4 ; or
             184          (ii) interference with a peace officer while making a lawful arrest under Section
             185      76-8-305 if the actor uses force against a peace officer;
             186          (f) commits a homicide which would be aggravated murder, but the offense is reduced
             187      pursuant to Subsection 76-5-202 (4); or
             188          (g) the actor commits aggravated murder, but special mitigation is established under
             189      Section 76-5-205.5 .
             190          (3) (a) Murder is a first degree felony.
             191          (b) A person who is convicted of murder shall be sentenced to imprisonment for an
             192      indeterminate term of not less than 15 years and which may be for life.
             193          (4) (a) It is an affirmative defense to a charge of murder or attempted murder that the
             194      defendant caused the death of another or attempted to cause the death of another:
             195          (i) under the influence of extreme emotional distress for which there is a reasonable
             196      explanation or excuse; or
             197          (ii) under a reasonable belief that the circumstances provided a legal justification or
             198      excuse for his conduct although the conduct was not legally justifiable or excusable under the
             199      existing circumstances.
             200          (b) Under Subsection (4)(a)(i) emotional distress does not include:
             201          (i) a condition resulting from mental illness as defined in Section 76-2-305 ; or
             202          (ii) distress that is substantially caused by the defendant's own conduct.
             203          (c) The reasonableness of an explanation or excuse under Subsection (4)(a)(i) or the
             204      reasonable belief of the actor under Subsection (4)(a)(ii) shall be determined from the
             205      viewpoint of a reasonable person under the then existing circumstances.
             206          (d) This affirmative defense reduces charges only as follows:
             207          (i) murder to manslaughter; and
             208          (ii) attempted murder to attempted manslaughter.
             209          Section 3. Section 76-10-508 is amended to read:
             210           76-10-508. Discharge of firearm from a vehicle, near a highway, or in direction of
             211      any person, building, or vehicle -- Penalties.
             212          (1) (a) A person may not discharge any kind of dangerous weapon or firearm:
             213          (i) from an automobile or other vehicle;


             214          (ii) from, upon, or across any highway;
             215          (iii) at any road signs placed upon any highways of the state;
             216          (iv) at any communications equipment or property of public utilities including
             217      facilities, lines, poles, or devices of transmission or distribution;
             218          (v) at railroad equipment or facilities including any sign or signal;
             219          (vi) within Utah State Park buildings, designated camp or picnic sites, overlooks, golf
             220      courses, boat ramps, and developed beaches; or
             221          (vii) without written permission to discharge the dangerous weapon from the owner or
             222      person in charge of the property within 600 feet of:
             223          (A) a house, dwelling, or any other building; or
             224          (B) any structure in which a domestic animal is kept or fed, including a barn, poultry
             225      yard, corral, feeding pen, or stockyard.
             226          (b) It shall be a defense to any [charge for violating] misdemeanor violation of this
             227      section that the person being accused had actual permission of the owner or person in charge of
             228      the property at the time in question.
             229          (2) [A] Except as provided in Subsection (3), a violation of any provision of [this
             230      section] Subsection (1) is a class B misdemeanor [unless the actor discharges].
             231          (3) A person commits a felony offense subject to penalty under Subsection (4) if the
             232      person violates any provision of Subsection (1) by discharging a firearm under any of the
             233      following circumstances not amounting to criminal homicide or attempted criminal homicide[,
             234      in which case it is a third degree felony and the convicted person shall be sentenced to an
             235      enhanced minimum term of three years in prison]:
             236          (a) the actor discharges a firearm in the direction of any person or persons, knowing or
             237      having reason to believe that any person may be endangered;
             238          (b) the actor, with intent to intimidate or harass another or with intent to damage a
             239      habitable structure as defined in Subsection 76-6-101 (2), discharges a firearm in the direction
             240      of any building; or
             241          (c) the actor, with intent to intimidate or harass another, discharges a firearm in the
             242      direction of any vehicle.
             243          (4) A violation under Subsection (3):
             244          (a) is a felony of the third degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of not less


             245      than three years nor more than five years, except as provided in Subsection (4)(b) or (c);
             246          (b) that results in bodily injury to another is a felony of the second degree, punishable
             247      by imprisonment for a term of not less than three years nor more than 15 years, except as
             248      provided in Subsection (4)(c); or
             249          (c) that results in serious bodily injury to another is a first degree felony, punishable by
             250      imprisonment for a term of not less than three years and which may be for life.
             251          [(3)] (5) The court shall:
             252          (a) notify the Driver License Division of the conviction for purposes of any revocation,
             253      denial, suspension, or disqualification of a driver license under [Section ] Subsection
             254      53-3-220 (1)(a)(xi); and
             255          (b) specify in court at the time of sentencing the length of the revocation under
             256      Subsection 53-3-225 (1)(c).
             257          [(4)] (6) This section does not apply to a person who:
             258          (a) [who] discharges any kind of firearm when that person is in lawful defense of self
             259      or others; [or]
             260          (b) [who] is performing official duties as provided in Sections 23-20-1.5 and
             261      76-10-523 and as otherwise provided by law[.]; or
             262          (c) discharges a dangerous weapon or firearm from an automobile or other vehicle, if:
             263          (i) the discharge occurs at a firing range or training ground;
             264          (ii) at no time after the discharge does the projectile that is discharged cross over or
             265      stop at a location other than within the boundaries of the firing range or training ground
             266      described in Subsection (6)(c)(i);
             267          (iii) the discharge is made as practice or training for a lawful purpose;
             268          (iv) the discharge and the location, time, and manner of the discharge are approved by
             269      the owner or operator of the firing range or training ground prior to the discharge; and
             270          (v) the discharge is not made in violation of Subsection (3).




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