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S.B. 150 Enrolled

             1     

CRIMINAL PENALTIES REVISIONS

             2     
2008 GENERAL SESSION

             3     
STATE OF UTAH

             4     
Chief Sponsor: Scott K. Jenkins

             5     
House Sponsor: Curtis Oda

             6     
             7      LONG TITLE
             8      General Description:
             9          This bill amends provisions of the Utah Criminal Code relating to criminal penalties.
             10      Highlighted Provisions:
             11          This bill:
             12          .    provides that attempt to commit a felony punishable by imprisonment for life without
             13      parole is a first degree felony;
             14          .    provides that a person who is convicted of aggravated murder, based on an
             15      aggravating circumstance that also constitutes a separate offense, may also be
             16      convicted of, and punished for, the separate offense;
             17          .    provides that a person who is convicted of murder, based on a predicate offense that
             18      also constitutes a separate offense, may also be convicted of, and punished for, the
             19      separate offense; and
             20          .    makes technical changes.
             21      Monies Appropriated in this Bill:
             22          None
             23      Other Special Clauses:
             24          This bill provides an immediate effective date.
             25      Utah Code Sections Affected:
             26      AMENDS:
             27          76-4-102, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2002, Chapter 57
             28          76-5-202, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2007, Chapters 275, 340, and 345
             29          76-5-203, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2007, Chapter 340


             30          76-8-316, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2007, Chapter 326
             31     
             32      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
             33          Section 1. Section 76-4-102 is amended to read:
             34           76-4-102. Attempt -- Classification of offenses.
             35          Criminal attempt to commit:
             36          (1) a capital felony, or a felony punishable by imprisonment for life without parole, is a
             37      first degree felony;
             38          (2) a first degree felony is a second degree felony, except that an attempt to commit any
             39      of the following offenses is a first degree felony punishable by imprisonment for an
             40      indeterminate term of not fewer than three years and which may be for life:
             41          (a) murder, a violation of Subsection 76-5-203 (2)(a), if the victim or another suffers
             42      serious bodily injury in the course of the actor's commission of the offense;
             43          (b) child kidnapping, a violation of Section 76-5-301.1 ; or
             44          (c) any of the felonies described in Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 4, Sexual Offenses, that are
             45      first degree felonies;
             46          (3) a second degree felony is a third degree felony;
             47          (4) a third degree felony is a class A misdemeanor;
             48          (5) a class A misdemeanor is a class B misdemeanor;
             49          (6) a class B misdemeanor is a class C misdemeanor; and
             50          (7) a class C misdemeanor is punishable by a penalty not exceeding one half the penalty
             51      for a class C misdemeanor.
             52          Section 2. Section 76-5-202 is amended to read:
             53           76-5-202. Aggravated murder.
             54          (1) Criminal homicide constitutes aggravated murder if the actor intentionally or
             55      knowingly causes the death of another under any of the following circumstances:
             56          (a) the homicide was committed by a person who is confined in a jail or other
             57      correctional institution;


             58          (b) the homicide was committed incident to one act, scheme, course of conduct, or
             59      criminal episode during which two or more persons were killed, or during which the actor
             60      attempted to kill one or more persons in addition to the victim who was killed;
             61          (c) the actor knowingly created a great risk of death to a person other than the victim
             62      and the actor;
             63          (d) the homicide was committed incident to an act, scheme, course of conduct, or
             64      criminal episode during which the actor committed or attempted to commit aggravated robbery,
             65      robbery, rape, rape of a child, object rape, object rape of a child, forcible sodomy, sodomy upon
             66      a child, forcible sexual abuse, sexual abuse of a child, aggravated sexual abuse of a child, child
             67      abuse as defined in Subsection 76-5-109 (2)(a), or aggravated sexual assault, aggravated arson,
             68      arson, aggravated burglary, burglary, aggravated kidnapping, or kidnapping, or child
             69      kidnapping;
             70          (e) the homicide was committed incident to one act, scheme, course of conduct, or
             71      criminal episode during which the actor committed the crime of abuse or desecration of a dead
             72      human body as defined in Subsection 76-9-704 (2)(e);
             73          (f) the homicide was committed for the purpose of avoiding or preventing an arrest of
             74      the defendant or another by a peace officer acting under color of legal authority or for the
             75      purpose of effecting the defendant's or another's escape from lawful custody;
             76          (g) the homicide was committed for pecuniary gain;
             77          (h) the defendant committed, or engaged or employed another person to commit the
             78      homicide pursuant to an agreement or contract for remuneration or the promise of remuneration
             79      for commission of the homicide;
             80          (i) the actor previously committed or was convicted of:
             81          (i) aggravated murder, Section 76-5-202 ;
             82          (ii) attempted aggravated murder, Section 76-5-202 ;
             83          (iii) murder, Section 76-5-203 ;
             84          (iv) attempted murder, Section 76-5-203 ; or
             85          (v) an offense committed in another jurisdiction which if committed in this state would


             86      be a violation of a crime listed in this Subsection (1)(i);
             87          (j) the actor was previously convicted of:
             88          (i) aggravated assault, Subsection 76-5-103 (2);
             89          (ii) mayhem, Section 76-5-105 ;
             90          (iii) kidnapping, Section 76-5-301 ;
             91          (iv) child kidnapping, Section 76-5-301.1 ;
             92          (v) aggravated kidnapping, Section 76-5-302 ;
             93          (vi) rape, Section 76-5-402 ;
             94          (vii) rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.1 ;
             95          (viii) object rape, Section 76-5-402.2 ;
             96          (ix) object rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.3 ;
             97          (x) forcible sodomy, Section 76-5-403 ;
             98          (xi) sodomy on a child, Section 76-5-403.1 ;
             99          (xii) aggravated sexual abuse of a child, Section 76-5-404.1 ;
             100          (xiii) aggravated sexual assault, Section 76-5-405 ;
             101          (xiv) aggravated arson, Section 76-6-103 ;
             102          (xv) aggravated burglary, Section 76-6-203 ;
             103          (xvi) aggravated robbery, Section 76-6-302 ; or
             104          (xvii) an offense committed in another jurisdiction which if committed in this state
             105      would be a violation of a crime listed in this Subsection (1)(j);
             106          (k) the homicide was committed for the purpose of:
             107          (i) preventing a witness from testifying;
             108          (ii) preventing a person from providing evidence or participating in any legal
             109      proceedings or official investigation;
             110          (iii) retaliating against a person for testifying, providing evidence, or participating in any
             111      legal proceedings or official investigation; or
             112          (iv) disrupting or hindering any lawful governmental function or enforcement of laws;
             113          (l) the victim is or has been a local, state, or federal public official, or a candidate for


             114      public office, and the homicide is based on, is caused by, or is related to that official position,
             115      act, capacity, or candidacy;
             116          (m) the victim is or has been a peace officer, law enforcement officer, executive officer,
             117      prosecuting officer, jailer, prison official, firefighter, judge or other court official, juror,
             118      probation officer, or parole officer, and the victim is either on duty or the homicide is based on,
             119      is caused by, or is related to that official position, and the actor knew, or reasonably should
             120      have known, that the victim holds or has held that official position;
             121          (n) the homicide was committed:
             122          (i) by means of a destructive device, bomb, explosive, incendiary device, or similar
             123      device which was planted, hidden, or concealed in any place, area, dwelling, building, or
             124      structure, or was mailed or delivered; or
             125          (ii) by means of any weapon of mass destruction as defined in Section 76-10-401 ;
             126          (o) the homicide was committed during the act of unlawfully assuming control of any
             127      aircraft, train, or other public conveyance by use of threats or force with intent to obtain any
             128      valuable consideration for the release of the public conveyance or any passenger, crew member,
             129      or any other person aboard, or to direct the route or movement of the public conveyance or
             130      otherwise exert control over the public conveyance;
             131          (p) the homicide was committed by means of the administration of a poison or of any
             132      lethal substance or of any substance administered in a lethal amount, dosage, or quantity;
             133          (q) the victim was a person held or otherwise detained as a shield, hostage, or for
             134      ransom;
             135          (r) the homicide was committed in an especially heinous, atrocious, cruel, or
             136      exceptionally depraved manner, any of which must be demonstrated by physical torture, serious
             137      physical abuse, or serious bodily injury of the victim before death;
             138          (s) the actor dismembers, mutilates, or disfigures the victim's body, whether before or
             139      after death, in a manner demonstrating the actor's depravity of mind; or
             140          (t) the victim was younger than 14 years of age.
             141          (2) Criminal homicide constitutes aggravated murder if the actor, with reckless


             142      indifference to human life, causes the death of another incident to an act, scheme, course of
             143      conduct, or criminal episode during which the actor is a major participant in the commission or
             144      attempted commission of:
             145          (a) child abuse, Subsection 76-5-109 (2)(a);
             146          (b) child kidnapping, Section 76-5-301.1 ;
             147          (c) rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.1 ;
             148          (d) object rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.3 ;
             149          (e) sodomy on a child, Section 76-5-403.1 ; or
             150          (f) sexual abuse or aggravated sexual abuse of a child, Section 76-5-404.1 .
             151          (3) (a) If a notice of intent to seek the death penalty has been filed, aggravated murder
             152      is a capital felony.
             153          (b) If a notice of intent to seek the death penalty has not been filed, aggravated murder
             154      is a noncapital first degree felony punishable by imprisonment for life without parole or by an
             155      indeterminate term of not less than 20 years and which may be for life.
             156          (c) (i) Within 60 days after arraignment of the defendant, the prosecutor may file notice
             157      of intent to seek the death penalty. The notice shall be served on the defendant or defense
             158      counsel and filed with the court.
             159          (ii) Notice of intent to seek the death penalty may be served and filed more than 60 days
             160      after the arraignment upon written stipulation of the parties or upon a finding by the court of
             161      good cause.
             162          (d) Without the consent of the prosecutor, the court may not accept a plea of guilty to
             163      noncapital first degree felony aggravated murder during the period in which the prosecutor may
             164      file a notice of intent to seek the death penalty under Subsection (3)(c)(i).
             165          (4) (a) It is an affirmative defense to a charge of aggravated murder or attempted
             166      aggravated murder that the defendant caused the death of another or attempted to cause the
             167      death of another:
             168          (i) under the influence of extreme emotional distress for which there is a reasonable
             169      explanation or excuse; or


             170          (ii) under a reasonable belief that the circumstances provided a legal justification or
             171      excuse for [his] the defendant's conduct although the conduct was not legally justifiable or
             172      excusable under the existing circumstances.
             173          (b) Under Subsection (4)(a)(i), emotional distress does not include:
             174          (i) a condition resulting from mental illness as defined in Section 76-2-305 ; or
             175          (ii) distress that is substantially caused by the defendant's own conduct.
             176          (c) The reasonableness of an explanation or excuse under Subsection (4)(a)(i) or the
             177      reasonable belief of the actor under Subsection (4)(a)(ii) shall be determined from the viewpoint
             178      of a reasonable person under the then existing circumstances.
             179          (d) This affirmative defense reduces charges only as follows:
             180          (i) aggravated murder to murder; and
             181          (ii) attempted aggravated murder to attempted murder.
             182          (5) (a) Any aggravating circumstance described in Subsection (1) or (2) that constitutes
             183      a separate offense does not merge with the crime of aggravated murder.
             184          (b) A person who is convicted of aggravated murder, based on an aggravating
             185      circumstance described in Subsection (1) or (2) that constitutes a separate offense, may also be
             186      convicted of, and punished for, the separate offense.
             187          Section 3. Section 76-5-203 is amended to read:
             188           76-5-203. Murder.
             189          (1) As used in this section, "predicate offense" means:
             190          (a) a violation of Section 58-37d-4 or 58-37d-5 , Clandestine Drug Lab Act;
             191          (b) child abuse, under Subsection 76-5-109 (2)(a), when the victim is younger than 18
             192      years of age;
             193          (c) kidnapping under Section 76-5-301 ;
             194          (d) child kidnapping under Section 76-5-301.1 ;
             195          (e) aggravated kidnapping under Section 76-5-302 ;
             196          (f) rape of a child under Section 76-5-402.1 ;
             197          (g) object rape of a child under Section 76-5-402.3 ;


             198          (h) sodomy upon a child under Section 76-5-403.1 ;
             199          (i) forcible sexual abuse under Section 76-5-404 ;
             200          (j) sexual abuse of a child or aggravated sexual abuse of a child under Section
             201      76-5-404.1 ;
             202          (k) rape under Section 76-5-402 ;
             203          (l) object rape under Section 76-5-402.2 ;
             204          (m) forcible sodomy under Section 76-5-403 ;
             205          (n) aggravated sexual assault under Section 76-5-405 ;
             206          (o) arson under Section 76-6-102 ;
             207          (p) aggravated arson under Section 76-6-103 ;
             208          (q) burglary under Section 76-6-202 ;
             209          (r) aggravated burglary under Section 76-6-203 ;
             210          (s) robbery under Section 76-6-301 ;
             211          (t) aggravated robbery under Section 76-6-302 ;
             212          (u) escape or aggravated escape under Section 76-8-309 ; or
             213          (v) a felony violation of Subsection 76-10-508 (2) regarding discharge of a firearm or
             214      dangerous weapon.
             215          (2) Criminal homicide constitutes murder if:
             216          (a) the actor intentionally or knowingly causes the death of another;
             217          (b) intending to cause serious bodily injury to another, the actor commits an act clearly
             218      dangerous to human life that causes the death of another;
             219          (c) acting under circumstances evidencing a depraved indifference to human life, the
             220      actor knowingly engages in conduct which creates a grave risk of death to another and thereby
             221      causes the death of another;
             222          (d) (i) the actor is engaged in the commission, attempted commission, or immediate
             223      flight from the commission or attempted commission of any predicate offense, or is a party to
             224      the predicate offense;
             225          (ii) a person other than a party as defined in Section 76-2-202 is killed in the course of


             226      the commission, attempted commission, or immediate flight from the commission or attempted
             227      commission of any predicate offense; and
             228          (iii) the actor acted with the intent required as an element of the predicate offense;
             229          (e) the actor recklessly causes the death of a peace officer while in the commission or
             230      attempted commission of:
             231          (i) an assault against a peace officer under Section 76-5-102.4 ; or
             232          (ii) interference with a peace officer while making a lawful arrest under Section
             233      76-8-305 if the actor uses force against a peace officer;
             234          (f) commits a homicide which would be aggravated murder, but the offense is reduced
             235      pursuant to Subsection 76-5-202 (4); or
             236          (g) the actor commits aggravated murder, but special mitigation is established under
             237      Section 76-5-205.5 .
             238          (3) (a) Murder is a first degree felony.
             239          (b) A person who is convicted of murder shall be sentenced to imprisonment for an
             240      indeterminate term of not less than 15 years and which may be for life.
             241          (4) (a) It is an affirmative defense to a charge of murder or attempted murder that the
             242      defendant caused the death of another or attempted to cause the death of another:
             243          (i) under the influence of extreme emotional distress for which there is a reasonable
             244      explanation or excuse; or
             245          (ii) under a reasonable belief that the circumstances provided a legal justification or
             246      excuse for his conduct although the conduct was not legally justifiable or excusable under the
             247      existing circumstances.
             248          (b) Under Subsection (4)(a)(i) emotional distress does not include:
             249          (i) a condition resulting from mental illness as defined in Section 76-2-305 ; or
             250          (ii) distress that is substantially caused by the defendant's own conduct.
             251          (c) The reasonableness of an explanation or excuse under Subsection (4)(a)(i) or the
             252      reasonable belief of the actor under Subsection (4)(a)(ii) shall be determined from the viewpoint
             253      of a reasonable person under the then existing circumstances.


             254          (d) This affirmative defense reduces charges only as follows:
             255          (i) murder to manslaughter; and
             256          (ii) attempted murder to attempted manslaughter.
             257          (5) (a) Any predicate offense described in Subsection (1) that constitutes a separate
             258      offense does not merge with the crime of murder.
             259          (b) A person who is convicted of murder, based on a predicate offense described in
             260      Subsection (1) that constitutes a separate offense, may also be convicted of, and punished for,
             261      the separate offense.
             262          Section 4. Section 76-8-316 is amended to read:
             263           76-8-316. Influencing, impeding, or retaliating against a judge or member of the
             264      Board of Pardons and Parole.
             265          (1) A person is guilty of a third degree felony if the person threatens to assault, kidnap,
             266      or murder a judge or a member of the Board of Pardons and Parole with the intent to impede,
             267      intimidate, or interfere with the judge or member of the board while engaged in the performance
             268      of the judge's or member's official duties or with the intent to retaliate against the judge or
             269      member on account of the performance of those official duties.
             270          (2) A person is guilty of a second degree felony if the person commits an assault on a
             271      judge or a member of the Board of Pardons and Parole with the intent to impede, intimidate, or
             272      interfere with the judge or member of the board while engaged in the performance of the judge's
             273      or member's official duties, or with the intent to retaliate against the judge or member on
             274      account of the performance of those official duties.
             275          (3) A person is guilty of a first degree felony if the person commits aggravated assault
             276      or attempted murder on a judge or a member of the Board of Pardons and Parole with the
             277      purpose to impede, intimidate, or interfere with the judge or member of the board while
             278      engaged in the performance of the judge's or member's official duties or with the purpose to
             279      retaliate against the judge or member on account of the performance of those official duties.
             280          (4) As used in this section:
             281          (a) "Immediate family" means parents, spouse, surviving spouse, children, and siblings


             282      of the officer.
             283          (b) "Judge" means judges of all courts of record and courts not of record and court
             284      commissioners.
             285          (c) "Judge or member" includes the members of the judge's or member's immediate
             286      family.
             287          (d) "Member of the Board of Pardons and Parole" means appointed members of the
             288      board.
             289          (5) A member of the Board of Pardons and Parole is an executive officer for purposes
             290      of Subsection 76-5-202 (1)[(k)](m).
             291          Section 5. Effective date.
             292          If approved by two-thirds of all the members elected to each house, this bill takes effect
             293      upon approval by the governor, or the day following the constitutional time limit of Utah
             294      Constitution Article VII, Section 8, without the governor's signature, or in the case of a veto,
             295      the date of veto override.


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