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S.B. 75





Chief Sponsor: Jon J. Greiner

House Sponsor: Curtis Oda

             7      LONG TITLE
             8      General Description:
             9          This bill amends the Criminal Code regarding loitering by groups that include gang
             10      members.
             11      Highlighted Provisions:
             12          This bill:
             13          .    provides that a peace officer may order a group to disperse if the group includes
             14      gang members and is in an area where loitering of groups that include gang
             15      members is prohibited by the local law enforcement agency;
             16          .    requires that the officer warn the group that failure to disperse is subject to arrest;
             17          .    requires chiefs of police and sheriffs to designate areas in their jurisdictions where
             18      police officers may require groups that include gang members to disperse;
             19          .    provides that failure to disperse upon the order of an officer is a class B
             20      misdemeanor, and a subsequent failure to disperse is a class B misdemeanor subject
             21      to a fine of $100;
             22          .    provides that if, after being ordered to disperse, a member of the group loiters again
             23      within specified times and at specified places, the person is guilty of a class B
             24      misdemeanor and is subject to a fine of $100;
             25          .    requires that officers receive training to ensure protection of the constitutional right
             26      of collective advocacy;
             27          .    requires that officers receive training on identification of gang members and

             28      criminal street gangs; and
             29          .    provides definitions.
             30      Monies Appropriated in this Bill:
             31          None
             32      Other Special Clauses:
             33          None
             34      Utah Code Sections Affected:
             35      ENACTS:
             36          76-9-801, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             37          76-9-802, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             38          76-9-803, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             39          76-9-804, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             40          76-9-805, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             41          76-9-806, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             42          76-9-807, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             44      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
             45          Section 1. Section 76-9-801 is enacted to read:
Part 8. Prohibition of Gang Activity

             47          76-9-801. Title.
             48          This part is known as "Prohibition of Gang Activity."
             49          Section 2. Section 76-9-802 is enacted to read:
             50          76-9-802. Definitions.
             51          As used in this part:
             52          (1) "Criminal street gang" means an organization, association in fact, or group of three
             53      or more persons, whether operated formally or informally:
             54          (a) that is currently in operation;
             55          (b) that has as one of its primary activities the commission of one or more predicate
             56      gang crimes;
             57          (c) that has, as a group, an identifying name or identifying sign or symbol, or both; and
             58          (d) whose members, acting individually or in concert with other members, engage in or

             59      have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity.
             60          (2) "Gang loitering" means a person:
             61          (a) remains in a public place subject to enforcement of Section 76-9-803 after having
             62      been ordered by a peace officer to disperse from that public place in accordance with Section
             63      76-9-803 ; or
             64          (b) (i) is present in a public place with or as part of a group of two or more persons that
             65      includes one or more persons a peace officer reasonably believes to be a member of a criminal
             66      street gang; and
             67          (ii) is within sight or hearing of a location where a law enforcement officer issued an
             68      order to the person to disperse under Section 76-9-803 within the prior eight hours.
             69          (3) "Pattern of criminal gang activity" means:
             70          (a) committing, attempting to commit, conspiring to commit, or soliciting the
             71      commission of two or more predicate gang crimes within five years;
             72          (b) the predicate gang crimes are:
             73          (i) committed by two or more persons; or
             74          (ii) committed by an individual at the direction of, or in association with a criminal
             75      street gang; and
             76          (c) the criminal activity was committed with the specific intent to promote, further, or
             77      assist in any criminal conduct by members of the criminal street gang.
             78          (4) (a) "Predicate gang crime" means any of the following offenses:
             79          (i) any criminal violation of the following provisions:
             80          (A) Title 58, Chapter 37, Utah Controlled Substances Act;
             81          (B) Title 58, Chapter 37a, Utah Drug Paraphernalia Act;
             82          (C) Title 58, Chapter 37b, Imitation Controlled Substances Act; or
             83          (D) Title 58, Chapter 37c, Utah Controlled Substance Precursor Act;
             84          (ii) Sections 76-5-102 through 76-5-103.5 , which address assault offenses;
             85          (iii) Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 2, Criminal Homicide;
             86          (iv) Sections 76-5-301 through 76-5-304 , which address kidnapping and related
             87      offenses;
             88          (v) any felony offense under Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 4, Sexual Offenses;
             89          (vi) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 1, Property Destruction;

             90          (vii) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 2, Burglary and Criminal Trespass;
             91          (viii) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 3, Robbery;
             92          (ix) any felony offense under Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 4, Theft, except Sections
             93      76-6-404.5 , 76-6-405 , 76-6-407 , 76-6-408 , 76-6-409 , 76-6-409.1 , 76-6-409.3 , 76-6-409.6 ,
             94      76-6-409.7 , 76-6-409.8 , 76-6-409.9 , 76-6-410 , and 76-6-410.5 ;
             95          (x) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 5, Fraud, except Sections 76-6-504 , 76-6-505 , 76-6-507 ,
             96      76-6-508 , 76-6-509 , 76-6-510 , 76-6-511 , 76-6-512 , 76-6-513 , 76-6-514 , 76-6-516 , 76-6-517 ,
             97      76-6-518 , and 76-6-520 ;
             98          (xi) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 11, Identity Fraud Act;
             99          (xii) Title 76, Chapter 8, Part 3, Obstructing Governmental Operations, except Sections
             100      76-8-302 , 76-8-303 , 76-8-304 , 76-8-307 , 76-8-308 , and 76-8-312 ;
             101          (xiii) Section 76-8-508 , which includes tampering with a witness;
             102          (xiv) Section 76-8-508.3 , which includes retaliation against a witness or victim;
             103          (xv) Section 76-8-509 , which includes extortion or bribery to dismiss a criminal
             104      proceeding;
             105          (xvi) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 3, which addresses explosives;
             106          (xvii) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 5, Weapons;
             107          (xviii) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 15, Bus Passenger Safety Act;
             108          (xix) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 16, Pattern of Unlawful Activity Act;
             109          (xx) Section 76-10-1801 , which addresses communications fraud;
             110          (xxi) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 19, Money Laundering and Currency Transaction
             111      Reporting Act;
             112          (xxii) Section 76-10-2002 , which addresses burglary of a research facility; and
             113          (xxiii) Title 41, Chapter 1a, Motor Vehicle Act:
             114          (A) Section 41-1a-1313 , regarding possession of a motor vehicle without an
             115      identification number;
             116          (B) Section 41-1a-1315 , regarding false evidence of title and registration;
             117          (C) Section 41-1a-1316 , regarding receiving or transferring stolen vehicles;
             118          (D) Section 41-1a-1317 , regarding selling or buying a motor vehicle without an
             119      identification number; and
             120          (E) Section 41-1a-1318 , regarding the fraudulent alteration of an identification number.

             121          (b) "Predicate gang crime" also includes:
             122          (i) any state or federal criminal offense that by its nature involves a substantial risk that
             123      physical force may be used against another in the course of committing the offense; and
             124          (ii) any felony violation of a criminal statute of any other state, the United States, or
             125      any district, possession, or territory of the United States which would constitute any offense in
             126      Subsection (4)(a) if committed in this state.
             127          (5) (a) "Public place" means any location or structure to which the public or a
             128      substantial group of the public has access and includes:
             129          (i) a sidewalk, street, or highway;
             130          (ii) a public park, public recreation facility, or any other area open to the public;
             131          (iii) a shopping mall, sports facility, stadium, arena, theater, movie house, or
             132      playhouse, or the parking lot or structure adjacent any of these; and
             133          (iv) the common areas of schools, hospitals, apartment houses, office buildings,
             134      transport facilities, and businesses.
             135          (b) "Public place" includes the lobbies, hallways, elevators, restaurants and other
             136      dining areas, and restrooms of any of the locations or structures under Subsection (5)(a).
             137          Section 3. Section 76-9-803 is enacted to read:
             138          76-9-803. Gang loitering -- Failure to disperse -- Penalties.
             139          (1) When a law enforcement officer observes a person whom the officer reasonably
             140      believes to be a member of a criminal street gang in the presence of one or more other persons
             141      in any public place where gang loitering is prohibited under Section 76-9-805 , the police
             142      officer shall:
             143          (a) inform all the persons that they are within an area in which loitering by a group
             144      containing one or more criminal street gang members is prohibited;
             145          (b) order all the persons in the group to disperse and remove themselves from within
             146      sight and hearing of the location where the officer issues the order to disperse; and
             147          (c) inform the persons that any person in the group will be subject to arrest if the
             148      person:
             149          (i) fails to promptly obey the order to disperse; or
             150          (ii) engages in gang loitering at or within the sight or hearing of the location where the
             151      officer issued the order to disperse.

             152          (2) The officer under Subsection (1) shall also advise the persons the officer is
             153      directing to disperse that each of the persons directed to disperse is subject to arrest if the
             154      person is again, within eight hours after the current order to disperse is made:
             155          (a) present in a public place with a group that includes one or more persons a peace
             156      officer reasonably believes to be a member of a criminal street gang; and
             157          (b) within sight or hearing of the location where the law enforcement officer is
             158      currently issuing the order to disperse.
             159          Section 4. Section 76-9-804 is enacted to read:
             160          76-9-804. Gang loitering -- Penalties.
             161          (1) (a) Failure to comply with an order issued under Subsection 76-9-803 (1)(b) to
             162      disperse is a class B misdemeanor of gang loitering.
             163          (b) Any second and subsequent violation of Subsection (1)(a) is a class B misdemeanor
             164      of gang loitering and is subject to a fine of not less than $100, unless the court finds mitigating
             165      circumstances justifying lesser punishment and makes that finding a part of the court record.
             166          (2) (a) Gang loitering is a class B misdemeanor if a person engages in gang loitering:
             167          (i) within eight hours of having been previously ordered to disperse under Section
             168      76-9-803 , regardless of whether the person complied with that order; and
             169          (ii) within sight or hearing of the location where a law enforcement officer issued the
             170      prior order to disperse under Section 76-9-803 .
             171          (b) A violation of Subsection (2)(a) is subject to a fine of not less than $100, unless the
             172      court finds mitigating circumstances justifying lesser punishment and makes that finding a part
             173      of the court record.
             174          Section 5. Section 76-9-805 is enacted to read:
             175          76-9-805. Designation of areas where orders to disperse are authorized and gang
             176      loitering is prohibited.
             177          (1) Sheriffs and chiefs of police shall each, within their respective jurisdictions,
             178      designate by written directive the areas within their jurisdictions that they have determined are
             179      subject to the enforcement of Section 76-9-803 because criminal street gangs have been able to
             180      or are attempting to:
             181          (a) establish control over these identifiable areas;
             182          (b) intimidate others from entering those areas; or

             183          (c) conceal illegal activities.
             184          (2) (a) Prior to designating areas subject to enforcement under Section 76-9-803 , the
             185      sheriff or chief of police shall consult, as appropriate, with persons who are knowledgeable
             186      about the effects of gang activity in areas where Section 76-9-803 may be enforced.
             187          (b) Persons consulted under Subsection (2)(a) may include:
             188          (i) members of local law enforcement agencies who have training or experience related
             189      to criminal street gangs;
             190          (ii) other agency personnel with particular knowledge of gang activities in the proposed
             191      designated area;
             192          (iii) elected and appointed officials of the area where the proposed designated area is
             193      located; and
             194          (iv) representatives of community-based organizations.
             195          (3) The sheriff or chief of police shall develop and implement procedures for periodic
             196      review and update of area designations made under Subsection (1).
             197          Section 6. Section 76-9-806 is enacted to read:
             198          76-9-806. Protection of constitutional rights.
             199          (1) This section does not affect or limit any individual's constitutional right to engage
             200      in collective advocacy activities that are protected by the Constitution or laws of this state or by
             201      the Constitution or laws of the United States.
             202          (2) The sheriff or chief of police shall issue a written directive to all agency employees
             203      that provides information on preventing the enforcement of Section 76-9-803 against persons
             204      who are engaged in constitutionally protected collective advocacy activities.
             205          Section 7. Section 76-9-807 is enacted to read:
             206          76-9-807. Training for participating law enforcement officers.
             207          The sheriff or chief of police implementing this part shall ensure that all officers
             208      charged with enforcing this part successfully complete appropriate training on identification of
             209      gang members and criminal street gangs.

Legislative Review Note
    as of 1-22-08 1:24 PM

Office of Legislative Research and General Counsel

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