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S.B. 275





Chief Sponsor: Peter C. Knudson

House Sponsor: Wayne A. Harper

             7      LONG TITLE
             8      General Description:
             9          This bill makes changes to the Utah Code of Military Justice.
             10      Highlighted Provisions:
             11          This bill:
             12          .    makes technical changes to titles used by military attorneys to conform with federal
             13      labels;
             14          .    eliminates the right to trial by jury for nonjudicial actions and provides instead for a
             15      de novo review on appeal; and
             16          .    makes technical changes.
             17      Monies Appropriated in this Bill:
             18          None
             19      Other Special Clauses:
             20          None
             21      Utah Code Sections Affected:
             22      AMENDS:
             23          39-1-41, as last amended by Laws of Utah 1988, Chapter 210
             24          39-6-2, as last amended by Laws of Utah 1989, Chapter 15
             25          39-6-6, as last amended by Laws of Utah 1989, Chapter 15
             26          39-6-13, as last amended by Laws of Utah 1989, Chapter 15
             27          39-6-20, as last amended by Laws of Utah 1989, Chapter 15

             28          39-6-27, as enacted by Laws of Utah 1988, Chapter 210
             29          39-6-54, as enacted by Laws of Utah 1988, Chapter 210
             30          39-6-58, as last amended by Laws of Utah 1988, Second Special Session, Chapter 9
             32      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
             33          Section 1. Section 39-1-41 is amended to read:
             34           39-1-41. Discharge or dismissal.
             35          A sentence of dismissal from the service or discharge imposed by a military court may
             36      not be executed until reviewed by the state [staff] judge advocate and [until] approved by the
             37      governor.
             38          Section 2. Section 39-6-2 is amended to read:
             39           39-6-2. Definitions.
             40          As used in this chapter:
             41          (1) "Accuser" means a person who:
             42          (a) signs and swears to charges;
             43          (b) directs that charges nominally be signed and sworn to by another; or
             44          (c) any other person who has an interest other than an official interest in the
             45      prosecution of the accused.
             46          (2) "Commanding officer" means both a commissioned officer and a warrant officer
             47      designated as a commander.
             48          (3) "Commissioned officer" includes a commissioned warrant officer.
             49          (4) "Convening authority" means the governor or the adjutant general.
             50          (5) "Duty status other than state active duty" means any other type of duty, and
             51      includes going to and returning from the duty.
             52          (6) "Enlisted member" means a person in an enlisted grade.
             53          (7) "Grade" means a step or degree in a graduated scale of office or military rank,
             54      established and designated as a grade by law or regulation.
             55          (8) "Legal officer" means any commissioned officer of the organized National Guard
             56      of the state designated to perform legal duties for a command.
             57          (9) "Major command" or "MACOM" means a major subdivision of the Utah National
             58      Guard.

             59          [(10) "May" is permissive, and in context grants or denies permission or authority.]
             60          [(11)] (10) "Military" means any or all of the armed forces of the United States.
             61          [(12)] (11) "Military court" means a court-martial, a court of inquiry, or a provost
             62      court.
             63          [(13)] (12) "Military judge" means a qualified staff judge advocate officer of a military
             64      court detailed under Section 39-6-20 .
             65          [(14)] (13) "National Guard" means the Utah Army and Air National Guard, including
             66      part-time and full-time active guard and reserve (AGR), and includes the Utah unorganized
             67      militia when called to active duty by the governor of the state.
             68          [(15)] (14) "Officer" means commissioned or warrant officer.
             69          [(16)] (15) "Rank" means the order of precedence among members of the armed forces.
             70          [(17) "Shall" is imperative.]
             71          [(18)] (16) "State active duty" means full-time duty in the active military service of the
             72      state under an order of the governor, issued pursuant to [his] the governor's authority, and
             73      includes going to and returning from the duty.
             74          [(19)] (17) "State [staff] judge advocate" or ["SSJA"] "SJA" means the commissioned
             75      officer responsible for supervising the administration of the military justice in the National
             76      Guard, and qualified and designated as judge advocate general corps officer.
             77          [(20)] (18) "Superior commissioned officer" means a commissioned officer superior to
             78      another in rank or command.
             79          [(21)] (19) "UCMJ" means Title 39, Chapter 6, Utah Code of Military Justice.
             80          Section 3. Section 39-6-6 is amended to read:
             81           39-6-6. State staff judge advocate -- Appointment -- Qualifications -- Duties --
             82      Assistants.
             83          (1) The adjutant general shall appoint an officer of the National Guard as the state
             84      [staff] judge advocate [(SSJA)]. The officer shall be a member of the Utah State Bar [and the],
             85      a United States federal court[. He shall also be], branch qualified, and designated as a staff
             86      judge advocate officer.
             87          (2) The state [staff] judge advocate is the principal military legal advisor[. He] and
             88      shall, in connection with rendering legal advice to the adjutant general, prepare pretrial advice,
             89      a post-trial review, and act as legal advisor to the adjutant general on all matters involving

             90      military justice, the Utah Manual for Military Courts, and the Utah Code of Military Justice.
             91          (3) The adjutant general may appoint assistant state [staff] judge advocates [(ASJA)] as
             92      [he considers] considered necessary. They shall be officers of the National Guard, members of
             93      the Utah State Bar, branch qualified, and designated as staff judge advocate officers.
             94          (4) The [SSJA] SJA or [his assistants] an assistant shall make frequent inspections of
             95      military units throughout the state to supervise the administration of military justice.
             96          (5) The convening authority shall [at all times] review directly with the [SSJA] SJA all
             97      matters relating to the administration of military justice and administrative actions. The
             98      [ASJA] assistant state judge advocate or legal officer of any command may communicate
             99      directly with the [ASJA] assistant state judge advocate or legal officer of a superior or
             100      subordinate command, or with the [SSJA] SJA.
             101          (6) A person who has acted as a member, military judge, trial counsel, assistant trial
             102      counsel, defense counsel, assistant defense counsel, or investigating officer, or who has been a
             103      witness for either the prosecution or defense, may not [in any case] subsequently act as [ASJA]
             104      assistant state judge advocate, [SSJA] SJA, or legal officer to any reviewing authority upon the
             105      same case.
             106          Section 4. Section 39-6-13 is amended to read:
             107           39-6-13. Limits on nonjudicial punishment.
             108          (1) Regulations prescribed by the governor, and additional regulations prescribed by
             109      the adjutant general of Utah may place limitations on authority concerning nonjudicial
             110      punishment under this chapter, regarding:
             111          (a) imposing punishment of any type or amount;
             112          (b) the categories of commanding officers who have the authority to impose
             113      punishment; [and]
             114          [(c) the applicability of this section to an accused who demands trial by a military
             115      court.]
             116          (c) procedures for appeal of nonjudicial findings and punishment; and
             117          (d) suspension and reimposition of nonjudicial punishment.
             118          [(2) (a) Except when a member is attached to or embarked on a vessel, punishment
             119      may not be imposed under this section on any person subject to this chapter if the person has,
             120      before the imposition of the punishment, demanded trial by military court in lieu of the

             121      punishment.]
             122          [(b) Regulations may be made regarding suspension of punishments authorized under
             123      this chapter.]
             124          (2) Punishment may be imposed under this section on any person subject to this
             125      chapter.
             126          (3) Regulations permitting nonjudicial punishment shall provide for de novo review on
             127      appeal of both the findings and punishment.
             128          (a) Any appeal shall be limited to the next two higher commanding officers.
             129          (b) On appeal, the findings or punishment may be modified or set aside.
             130          (c) In no case may the appeal increase the amount of punishment originally imposed.
             131          (4) The decision of the adjutant general to impose nonjudicial punishment upon a
             132      person subject to this chapter or to resolve an appeal of the punishment is final and may not be
             133      subject to appeal or judicial review.
             134          (5) A person subject to this chapter may request trial by a military court in lieu of
             135      nonjudicial punishment at any time prior to imposition of nonjudicial punishment.
             136          (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for trial in lieu of nonjudicial punishment, the
             137      commanding officer having authority may:
             138          (i) deny the request and impose nonjudicial punishment; or
             139          (ii) grant the request.
             140          (b) Denial of a request for court martial in lieu of nonjudicial punishment may not
             141      create a private right of action and is not subject to judicial review.
             142          Section 5. Section 39-6-20 is amended to read:
             143           39-6-20. Military judge -- Qualifications -- Designation for detail.
             144          (1) The authority convening a military court shall, subject to regulations made by the
             145      governor, detail a military judge to preside over each open session of the court.
             146          (2) A military judge shall be:
             147          (a) a commissioned officer [who is];
             148          (b) a member of the Utah State Bar[,];
             149          (c) a member of the bar of a federal court[,]; and
             150          (d) certified as qualified for this duty by the state [staff] judge advocate.
             151          (3) (a) The military judge of a military court shall be designated by the state [staff]

             152      judge advocate or [his] the SJA's designee for detail by the convening authority.
             153          (b) Unless the military court was convened by the governor, neither the adjutant
             154      general nor [his] the adjutant general's staff may prepare or review any report concerning the
             155      effectiveness, fitness, or efficiency of the detailed military judge that relates to [his] the judge's
             156      performance of duty as a military judge.
             157          (4) A person is not eligible to act as a military judge in a case if [he] the person:
             158          (a) is the accuser[,];
             159          (b) is a witness in the case[,];
             160          (c) has acted as investigating officer[,]; or
             161          (d) is a counsel in the same case.
             162          (5) The military judge of a court may not:
             163          (a) consult with the members of the court, except in the presence of the accused, trial
             164      counsel, and defense counsel; or
             165          (b) vote with the members of the court.
             166          Section 6. Section 39-6-27 is amended to read:
             167           39-6-27. Review of charge by SJA -- Corrections to charges.
             168          (1) (a) Before directing the trial of any charge by a military court, the convening
             169      authority shall refer it to the [SSJA] SJA for consideration and advice.
             170          (b) The convening authority may not refer a charge to a military court for trial unless
             171      he or she has found that the charge alleges an offense under this chapter and is warranted by
             172      sufficient evidence, as indicated in the report of the investigation.
             173          (2) If the charges or specifications are not formally correct or do not conform to the
             174      substance of the evidence contained in the report of the investigating officer, formal corrections
             175      and changes in the charges and specifications as necessary may be made to conform to the
             176      evidence.
             177          Section 7. Section 39-6-54 is amended to read:
             178           39-6-54. Convening authority refers record to SJA -- Opinion.
             179          The convening authority shall refer the record of each military court to the [SSJA] SJA,
             180      who shall submit [his] a written opinion to the convening authority. If the final action of the
             181      court is an acquittal of all charges and specifications, the opinion is limited to questions of
             182      jurisdiction.

             183          Section 8. Section 39-6-58 is amended to read:
             184           39-6-58. Convening authority review -- Action by governor final -- SJA review --
             185      Appeal of final action.
             186          (1) When the governor is the convening authority, [his] the governor's action on the
             187      review of a record of trial is final.
             188          (2) The state [staff] judge advocate shall review the record of trial in each case prior to
             189      final action being taken.
             190          (3) The [SSJA] SJA shall make a written review and recommendation on legal issues
             191      to the convening authority for its consideration prior to final action in any case.
             192          (4) In a case subject to review by the [SSJA] SJA under this section, [he] the SJA shall
             193      submit [his] an opinion regarding any errors committed during the trial and [his] an analysis of
             194      the legal effect of the error to the convening authority prior to its affirmation and action
             195      regarding the findings and sentence in the case.
             196          (5) The convening authority may affirm only findings of guilty and the sentence or part
             197      of the sentence [he] that:
             198          (a) [finds] is correct in law and fact; and
             199          (b) [determines] should be approved, based on the entire record and the advice of the
             200      [SSJA] SJA, and any rebuttal submitted by the accused or [his] defense counsel.
             201          (6) In considering the record, the convening authority may weigh the evidence, judge
             202      the credibility of witnesses, and determine controverted questions of fact, recognizing that the
             203      trial court saw and heard the testimony of the witnesses.
             204          (7) If the convening authority sets aside the findings and sentence:
             205          (a) [he may order] a rehearing may be ordered, except when the decision to set aside is
             206      based on a lack of sufficient evidence in the record to support the findings; or
             207          (b) if [he does not order] a rehearing is not ordered, [he shall dismiss] the charges shall
             208      be dismissed.
             209          (8) (a) Final action approved by the convening authority may be appealed directly to
             210      the Utah Court of Appeals.
             211          (b) Notice of appeal shall be filed within 30 days after the final action has been taken
             212      by the convening authority.

Legislative Review Note
    as of 2-6-08 6:30 PM

Office of Legislative Research and General Counsel

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