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S.B. 16





Chief Sponsor: Jon J. Greiner

House Sponsor: Curtis Oda

             7      LONG TITLE
             8      Committee Note:
             9          The Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Interim Committee recommended this bill.
             10      General Description:
             11          This bill amends the Criminal Code by creating the offense of failure to disperse from
             12      loitering in a public place by groups that include gang members.
             13      Highlighted Provisions:
             14          This bill:
             15          .    provides that a peace officer may order a group to disperse if the group includes
             16      persons an officer reasonably believes to be gang members and is in an area where
             17      loitering of groups that include gang members is prohibited by the local law
             18      enforcement agency;
             19          .    requires that the officer warn the group that failure to disperse is subject to arrest;
             20          .    requires municipal and county legislative bodies to designate areas in their
             21      jurisdictions where police officers may require groups that include gang members to
             22      disperse;
             23          .    provides that failure to disperse upon the order of an officer is a class B
             24      misdemeanor, and a subsequent failure to disperse is a class B misdemeanor subject
             25      to a fine of $100;
             26          .    provides that if, after being ordered to disperse, a member of the group loiters again
             27      within specified times and at specified places, the person is guilty of a class B

             28      misdemeanor and is subject to a fine of $100;
             29          .    requires that officers receive training to ensure protection of the constitutional right
             30      of collective advocacy;
             31          .    requires that officers receive training on identification of gang members and
             32      criminal street gangs; and
             33          .    provides definitions.
             34      Monies Appropriated in this Bill:
             35          None
             36      Other Special Clauses:
             37          None
             38      Utah Code Sections Affected:
             39      ENACTS:
             40          76-9-901, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             41          76-9-902, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             42          76-9-903, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             43          76-9-904, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             44          76-9-905, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             45          76-9-906, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             46          76-9-907, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             48      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:
             49          Section 1. Section 76-9-901 is enacted to read:
Part 9. Prohibition of Gang Activity

             51          76-9-901. Title.
             52          This part is known as "Prohibition of Gang Activity."
             53          Section 2. Section 76-9-902 is enacted to read:
             54          76-9-902. Definitions.
             55          As used in this part:
             56          (1) "Criminal street gang" means an organization, association in fact, or group of three
             57      or more persons, whether operated formally or informally:
             58          (a) that is currently in operation;

             59          (b) that has as one of its substantial activities the commission of one or more predicate
             60      gang crimes;
             61          (c) that has, as a group, an identifying name or an identifying sign or symbol, or both;
             62      and
             63          (d) whose members, acting individually or in concert with other members, engage in or
             64      have engaged in a pattern of criminal gang activity.
             65          (2) "Gang loitering" means a person remains in one place under circumstances that
             66      would cause a reasonable person to believe that the purpose or effect of that behavior is to
             67      enable or facilitate a criminal street gang to:
             68          (a) establish control over one or more identifiable areas;
             69          (b) intimidate others from entering those areas; or
             70          (c) conceal illegal activities.
             71          (3) "Pattern of criminal gang activity" means committing, attempting to commit,
             72      conspiring to commit, or soliciting the commission of two or more predicate gang crimes
             73      within five years, if the predicate gang crimes are committed:
             74          (a) (i) by two or more persons; or
             75          (ii) by an individual at the direction of or in association with a criminal street gang; and
             76          (b) with the specific intent to promote, further, or assist in any criminal conduct by
             77      members of a criminal street gang.
             78          (4) (a) "Predicate gang crime" means any of the following offenses:
             79          (i) any criminal violation of:
             80          (A) Title 58, Chapter 37, Utah Controlled Substances Act;
             81          (B) Title 58, Chapter 37a, Utah Drug Paraphernalia Act;
             82          (C) Title 58, Chapter 37b, Imitation Controlled Substances Act; or
             83          (D) Title 58, Chapter 37c, Utah Controlled Substance Precursor Act;
             84          (ii) Sections 76-5-102 through 76-5-103.5 , which address assault offenses;
             85          (iii) Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 2, Criminal Homicide;
             86          (iv) Sections 76-5-301 through 76-5-304 , which address kidnapping and related
             87      offenses;
             88          (v) any felony offense under Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 4, Sexual Offenses;
             89          (vi) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 1, Property Destruction;

             90          (vii) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 2, Burglary and Criminal Trespass;
             91          (viii) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 3, Robbery;
             92          (ix) any felony offense under Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 4, Theft, except Sections
             93      76-6-404.5 , 76-6-405 , 76-6-407 , 76-6-408 , 76-6-409 , 76-6-409.1 , 76-6-409.3 , 76-6-409.6 ,
             94      76-6-409.7 , 76-6-409.8 , 76-6-409.9 , 76-6-410 , and 76-6-410.5 ;
             95          (x) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 5, Fraud, except Sections 76-6-504 , 76-6-505 , 76-6-507 ,
             96      76-6-508 , 76-6-509 , 76-6-510 , 76-6-511 , 76-6-512 , 76-6-513 , 76-6-514 , 76-6-516 , 76-6-517 ,
             97      76-6-518 , and 76-6-520 ;
             98          (xi) Title 76, Chapter 6, Part 11, Identity Fraud Act;
             99          (xii) Title 76, Chapter 8, Part 3, Obstructing Governmental Operations, except Sections
             100      76-8-302 , 76-8-303 , 76-8-304 , 76-8-307 , 76-8-308 , and 76-8-312 ;
             101          (xiii) Section 76-8-508 , which includes tampering with a witness;
             102          (xiv) Section 76-8-508.3 , which includes retaliation against a witness or victim;
             103          (xv) Section 76-8-509 , which includes extortion or bribery to dismiss a criminal
             104      proceeding;
             105          (xvi) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 3, Explosives;
             106          (xvii) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 5, Weapons;
             107          (xviii) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 15, Bus Passenger Safety Act;
             108          (xix) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 16, Pattern of Unlawful Activity Act;
             109          (xx) Section 76-10-1801 , which addresses communications fraud;
             110          (xxi) Title 76, Chapter 10, Part 19, Money Laundering and Currency Transaction
             111      Reporting Act;
             112          (xxii) Section 76-10-2002 , which addresses burglary of a research facility; and
             113          (xxiii) Title 41, Chapter 1a, Motor Vehicle Act:
             114          (A) Section 41-1a-1313 , regarding possession of a motor vehicle without an
             115      identification number;
             116          (B) Section 41-1a-1315 , regarding false evidence of title and registration;
             117          (C) Section 41-1a-1316 , regarding receiving or transferring stolen vehicles;
             118          (D) Section 41-1a-1317 , regarding selling or buying a vehicle without an identification
             119      number; and
             120          (E) Section 41-1a-1318 , regarding the fraudulent alteration of an identification number.

             121          (b) "Predicate gang crime" also includes:
             122          (i) any state or federal criminal offense that by its nature involves a substantial risk that
             123      physical force may be used against another in the course of committing the offense; and
             124          (ii) any felony violation of a criminal statute of any other state, the United States, or
             125      any district, possession, or territory of the United States which would constitute any offense in
             126      Subsection (4)(a) if committed in this state.
             127          (5) (a) "Public place" means any location or structure to which the public or a
             128      substantial group of the public has access, and includes:
             129          (i) a sidewalk, street, or highway;
             130          (ii) a public park, public recreation facility, or any other area open to the public;
             131          (iii) a shopping mall, sports facility, stadium, arena, theater, movie house, or
             132      playhouse, or the parking lot or structure adjacent to any of these; and
             133          (iv) the common areas of schools, hospitals, apartment houses, office buildings,
             134      transport facilities, and businesses.
             135          (b) "Public place" includes the lobbies, hallways, elevators, restaurants and other
             136      dining areas, and restrooms of any of the locations or structures under Subsection (5)(a).
             137          Section 3. Section 76-9-903 is enacted to read:
             138          76-9-903. Gang loitering -- Failure to disperse -- Penalties.
             139          (1) When a law enforcement officer observes a person whom the officer reasonably
             140      believes to be a member of a criminal street gang engaging in gang loitering in the presence of
             141      one or more other persons in any public place where gang loitering is prohibited under Section
             142      76-9-905 , the police officer shall:
             143          (a) inform all the persons that they are within an area in which loitering by a group
             144      containing one or more criminal street gang members is prohibited;
             145          (b) order all the persons in the group to disperse and remove themselves from within
             146      sight and hearing of the location where the officer issues the order to disperse; and
             147          (c) inform the persons that any person in the group will be subject to being charged
             148      with a criminal offense and will also be subject to arrest if the person fails to promptly obey the
             149      order to disperse.
             150          (2) The officer under Subsection (1) shall also advise the persons the officer is
             151      directing to disperse that each of the persons directed to disperse is subject to being charged

             152      with a criminal offense and will also be subject to arrest if the person is again, within eight
             153      hours after the current order to disperse is made:
             154          (a) present in a public place with a group that includes one or more persons a peace
             155      officer reasonably believes to be a member of a criminal street gang; and
             156          (b) within sight or hearing of the location where the law enforcement officer is
             157      currently issuing the order to disperse.
             158          Section 4. Section 76-9-904 is enacted to read:
             159          76-9-904. Failure to disperse -- Penalties.
             160          (1) (a) Failure to comply with an order issued under Subsection 76-9-903 (1)(b) to
             161      disperse is a class B misdemeanor of failure to disperse.
             162          (b) Any second and subsequent violation of Subsection (1)(a) is a class B misdemeanor
             163      of failure to disperse and is subject to a fine of not less than $100, unless the court finds
             164      mitigating circumstances justifying a lesser punishment and makes that finding a part of the
             165      court record.
             166          (2) (a) A person is guilty of a class B misdemeanor of subsequent failure to disperse
             167      who:
             168          (i) is present in a public place with or as part of a group of two or more persons, and
             169      that group includes one or more persons a peace officer reasonably believes to be a member of
             170      a criminal street gang; and
             171          (ii) is within sight or hearing of a location where a law enforcement officer issued an
             172      order to the person to disperse under Section 76-9-903 within the prior eight hours.
             173          (b) A violation of Subsection (2)(a) is subject to a fine of not less than $100, unless the
             174      court finds mitigating circumstances justifying a lesser punishment and makes that finding a
             175      part of the court record.
             176          Section 5. Section 76-9-905 is enacted to read:
             177          76-9-905. Designation of areas where orders to disperse are authorized and gang
             178      loitering is prohibited.
             179          (1) Municipal and county legislative bodies shall, within their respective jurisdictions,
             180      designate the areas within their jurisdictions that they have determined are subject to the
             181      enforcement of Section 76-9-903 because criminal street gangs have been able to or are
             182      attempting to:

             183          (a) establish control over these identifiable areas;
             184          (b) intimidate others from entering those areas; or
             185          (c) conceal illegal activities conducted in those areas.
             186          (2) (a) Prior to designating areas subject to enforcement under Section 76-9-903 , the
             187      legislative body shall consult, as appropriate, with persons who are knowledgeable about the
             188      effects of gang activity in areas where Section 76-9-903 may be enforced.
             189          (b) Persons consulted under Subsection (2)(a) may include:
             190          (i) members of local law enforcement agencies who have training or experience related
             191      to criminal street gangs;
             192          (ii) other agency personnel with particular knowledge of gang activities in the proposed
             193      designated area;
             194          (iii) elected and appointed officials of the area where the proposed designated area is
             195      located; and
             196          (iv) representatives of community-based organizations.
             197          (3) The municipal or county legislative body shall develop and implement procedures
             198      for periodic review and update of area designations it makes under Subsection (1).
             199          Section 6. Section 76-9-906 is enacted to read:
             200          76-9-906. Protection of constitutional rights.
             201          (1) This section does not affect or limit any individual's constitutional right to engage
             202      in collective advocacy activities that are protected by the constitution or laws of this state or by
             203      the constitution or laws of the United States.
             204          (2) The sheriff or chief of police shall issue a written directive to all agency employees
             205      that provides information on preventing the enforcement of Section 76-9-903 against persons
             206      who are engaged in constitutionally protected collective advocacy activities.
             207          Section 7. Section 76-9-907 is enacted to read:
             208          76-9-907. Training for participating law enforcement officers.
             209          The sheriff or chief of police implementing this part shall ensure that all officers
             210      charged with enforcing this part successfully complete appropriate training on identification of
             211      gang members and criminal street gangs.

Legislative Review Note
    as of 11-19-08 1:30 PM

Office of Legislative Research and General Counsel

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