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H.B. 462 Enrolled

             1     

CRIMINAL HOMICIDE AND ABORTION REVISIONS

             2     
2010 GENERAL SESSION

             3     
STATE OF UTAH

             4     
Chief Sponsor: Carl Wimmer

             5     
Senate Sponsor: Margaret Dayton

             6     
             7      LONG TITLE
             8      General Description:
             9          This bill amends provisions of the Utah Criminal Code to describe the difference
             10      between abortion and criminal homicide of an unborn child and to remove prohibitions
             11      against prosecution of a woman for killing an unborn child or committing criminal
             12      homicide of an unborn child.
             13      Highlighted Provisions:
             14          This bill:
             15          .    provides that, for aggravated murder, the aggravating factor of the victim being
             16      under the age of 14 years does not apply to the homicide of an unborn child;
             17          .    provides that a person is not guilty of criminal homicide of an unborn child if the
             18      sole reason for the death of the unborn child is that the person refused to consent to
             19      medical treatment or a cesarean section or failed to follow medical advice;
             20          .    provides that a woman is not guilty of criminal homicide of her own unborn child if
             21      the death of her unborn child:
             22              .    is caused by a criminally negligent or reckless act of the woman; and
             23              .    is not caused by an intentional or knowing act of the woman;
             24          .    defines terms, including amending the definition of abortion to relate only to a
             25      medical procedure carried out by a physician, or through a substance used under
             26      the direction of a physician, with the consent of the woman on whom the abortion
             27      is performed;
             28          .    describes the difference between abortion and criminal homicide of an unborn
             29      child;


             30          .    removes prohibitions against prosecution of a woman for killing an unborn child or
             31      committing criminal homicide of an unborn child;
             32          .    clarifies that a woman is not criminally liable for seeking to obtain, or obtaining, an
             33      abortion that is permitted by law; and
             34          .    makes technical changes.
             35      Monies Appropriated in this Bill:
             36          None
             37      Other Special Clauses:
             38          This bill provides an immediate effective date.
             39          This bill coordinates with H.B. 12, Criminal Homicide and Abortion Amendments, by
             40      providing superseding amendments.
             41      Utah Code Sections Affected:
             42      AMENDS:
             43          76-5-201, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2002, Chapter 327
             44          76-5-202, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2009, Chapters 157 and 206
             45          76-7-301, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2004, Chapters 90 and 272
             46          76-7-302, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2009, Chapter 38
             47          76-7-314, as last amended by Laws of Utah 2009, Chapter 38
             48          76-7-314.5, as enacted by Laws of Utah 2009, Chapter 38
             49          76-7-327, as enacted by Laws of Utah 2004, Chapter 272
             50      ENACTS:
             51          76-7-301.5, Utah Code Annotated 1953
             52      REPEALS:
             53          76-7-329, as enacted by Laws of Utah 2004, Chapter 272
             54      Utah Code Sections Affected by Coordination Clause:
             55          The sections contained in H.B. 12, Criminal Homicide and Abortion Amendments.
             56     
             57      Be it enacted by the Legislature of the state of Utah:


             58          Section 1. Section 76-5-201 is amended to read:
             59           76-5-201. Criminal homicide -- Elements -- Designations of offenses.
             60          (1) (a) [A] Except as provided in Subsections (3) and (4), a person commits criminal
             61      homicide if [he] the person intentionally, knowingly, recklessly, with criminal negligence, or
             62      acting with a mental state otherwise specified in the statute defining the offense, causes the
             63      death of another human being, including an unborn child at any stage of its development.
             64          (b) There shall be no cause of action for criminal homicide for the death of an unborn
             65      child caused by an abortion, as defined in Section 76-7-301 .
             66          (2) Criminal homicide is aggravated murder, murder, manslaughter, child abuse
             67      homicide, homicide by assault, negligent homicide, or automobile homicide.
             68          (3) A person is not guilty of criminal homicide of an unborn child if the sole reason
             69      for the death of the unborn child is that the person:
             70          (a) refused to consent to:
             71          (i) medical treatment; or
             72          (ii) a cesarean section; or
             73          (b) failed to follow medical advice.
             74          (4) A woman is not guilty of criminal homicide of her own unborn child if the death of
             75      her unborn child:
             76          (a) is caused by a criminally negligent act or reckless act of the woman; and
             77          (b) is not caused by an intentional or knowing act of the woman.
             78          Section 2. Section 76-5-202 is amended to read:
             79           76-5-202. Aggravated murder.
             80          (1) Criminal homicide constitutes aggravated murder if the actor intentionally or
             81      knowingly causes the death of another under any of the following circumstances:
             82          (a) the homicide was committed by a person who is confined in a jail or other
             83      correctional institution;
             84          (b) the homicide was committed incident to one act, scheme, course of conduct, or
             85      criminal episode during which two or more persons were killed, or during which the actor


             86      attempted to kill one or more persons in addition to the victim who was killed;
             87          (c) the actor knowingly created a great risk of death to a person other than the victim
             88      and the actor;
             89          (d) the homicide was committed incident to an act, scheme, course of conduct, or
             90      criminal episode during which the actor committed or attempted to commit aggravated
             91      robbery, robbery, rape, rape of a child, object rape, object rape of a child, forcible sodomy,
             92      sodomy upon a child, forcible sexual abuse, sexual abuse of a child, aggravated sexual abuse
             93      of a child, child abuse as defined in Subsection 76-5-109 (2)(a), or aggravated sexual assault,
             94      aggravated arson, arson, aggravated burglary, burglary, aggravated kidnapping, or kidnapping,
             95      or child kidnapping;
             96          (e) the homicide was committed incident to one act, scheme, course of conduct, or
             97      criminal episode during which the actor committed the crime of abuse or desecration of a dead
             98      human body as defined in Subsection 76-9-704 (2)(e);
             99          (f) the homicide was committed for the purpose of avoiding or preventing an arrest of
             100      the defendant or another by a peace officer acting under color of legal authority or for the
             101      purpose of effecting the defendant's or another's escape from lawful custody;
             102          (g) the homicide was committed for pecuniary gain;
             103          (h) the defendant committed, or engaged or employed another person to commit the
             104      homicide pursuant to an agreement or contract for remuneration or the promise of
             105      remuneration for commission of the homicide;
             106          (i) the actor previously committed or was convicted of:
             107          (i) aggravated murder under this section;
             108          (ii) attempted aggravated murder under this section;
             109          (iii) murder, Section 76-5-203 ;
             110          (iv) attempted murder, Section 76-5-203 ; or
             111          (v) an offense committed in another jurisdiction which if committed in this state
             112      would be a violation of a crime listed in this Subsection (1)(i);
             113          (j) the actor was previously convicted of:


             114          (i) aggravated assault, Subsection 76-5-103 (2);
             115          (ii) mayhem, Section 76-5-105 ;
             116          (iii) kidnapping, Section 76-5-301 ;
             117          (iv) child kidnapping, Section 76-5-301.1 ;
             118          (v) aggravated kidnapping, Section 76-5-302 ;
             119          (vi) rape, Section 76-5-402 ;
             120          (vii) rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.1 ;
             121          (viii) object rape, Section 76-5-402.2 ;
             122          (ix) object rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.3 ;
             123          (x) forcible sodomy, Section 76-5-403 ;
             124          (xi) sodomy on a child, Section 76-5-403.1 ;
             125          (xii) aggravated sexual abuse of a child, Section 76-5-404.1 ;
             126          (xiii) aggravated sexual assault, Section 76-5-405 ;
             127          (xiv) aggravated arson, Section 76-6-103 ;
             128          (xv) aggravated burglary, Section 76-6-203 ;
             129          (xvi) aggravated robbery, Section 76-6-302 ;
             130          (xvii) felony discharge of a firearm, Section 76-10-508.1 ; or
             131          (xviii) an offense committed in another jurisdiction which if committed in this state
             132      would be a violation of a crime listed in this Subsection (1)(j);
             133          (k) the homicide was committed for the purpose of:
             134          (i) preventing a witness from testifying;
             135          (ii) preventing a person from providing evidence or participating in any legal
             136      proceedings or official investigation;
             137          (iii) retaliating against a person for testifying, providing evidence, or participating in
             138      any legal proceedings or official investigation; or
             139          (iv) disrupting or hindering any lawful governmental function or enforcement of laws;
             140          (l) the victim is or has been a local, state, or federal public official, or a candidate for
             141      public office, and the homicide is based on, is caused by, or is related to that official position,


             142      act, capacity, or candidacy;
             143          (m) the victim is or has been a peace officer, law enforcement officer, executive
             144      officer, prosecuting officer, jailer, prison official, firefighter, judge or other court official,
             145      juror, probation officer, or parole officer, and the victim is either on duty or the homicide is
             146      based on, is caused by, or is related to that official position, and the actor knew, or reasonably
             147      should have known, that the victim holds or has held that official position;
             148          (n) the homicide was committed:
             149          (i) by means of a destructive device, bomb, explosive, incendiary device, or similar
             150      device which was planted, hidden, or concealed in any place, area, dwelling, building, or
             151      structure, or was mailed or delivered; or
             152          (ii) by means of any weapon of mass destruction as defined in Section 76-10-401 ;
             153          (o) the homicide was committed during the act of unlawfully assuming control of any
             154      aircraft, train, or other public conveyance by use of threats or force with intent to obtain any
             155      valuable consideration for the release of the public conveyance or any passenger, crew
             156      member, or any other person aboard, or to direct the route or movement of the public
             157      conveyance or otherwise exert control over the public conveyance;
             158          (p) the homicide was committed by means of the administration of a poison or of any
             159      lethal substance or of any substance administered in a lethal amount, dosage, or quantity;
             160          (q) the victim was a person held or otherwise detained as a shield, hostage, or for
             161      ransom;
             162          (r) the homicide was committed in an especially heinous, atrocious, cruel, or
             163      exceptionally depraved manner, any of which must be demonstrated by physical torture,
             164      serious physical abuse, or serious bodily injury of the victim before death;
             165          (s) the actor dismembers, mutilates, or disfigures the victim's body, whether before or
             166      after death, in a manner demonstrating the actor's depravity of mind; or
             167          (t) the victim, at the time of the death of the victim:
             168          (i) was younger than 14 years of age[.]; and
             169          (ii) was not an unborn child.


             170          (2) Criminal homicide constitutes aggravated murder if the actor, with reckless
             171      indifference to human life, causes the death of another incident to an act, scheme, course of
             172      conduct, or criminal episode during which the actor is a major participant in the commission
             173      or attempted commission of:
             174          (a) child abuse, Subsection 76-5-109 (2)(a);
             175          (b) child kidnapping, Section 76-5-301.1 ;
             176          (c) rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.1 ;
             177          (d) object rape of a child, Section 76-5-402.3 ;
             178          (e) sodomy on a child, Section 76-5-403.1 ; or
             179          (f) sexual abuse or aggravated sexual abuse of a child, Section 76-5-404.1 .
             180          (3) (a) If a notice of intent to seek the death penalty has been filed, aggravated murder
             181      is a capital felony.
             182          (b) If a notice of intent to seek the death penalty has not been filed, aggravated murder
             183      is a noncapital first degree felony punishable by imprisonment for life without parole or by an
             184      indeterminate term of not less than 20 years and which may be for life.
             185          (c) (i) Within 60 days after arraignment of the defendant, the prosecutor may file
             186      notice of intent to seek the death penalty. The notice shall be served on the defendant or
             187      defense counsel and filed with the court.
             188          (ii) Notice of intent to seek the death penalty may be served and filed more than 60
             189      days after the arraignment upon written stipulation of the parties or upon a finding by the court
             190      of good cause.
             191          (d) Without the consent of the prosecutor, the court may not accept a plea of guilty to
             192      noncapital first degree felony aggravated murder during the period in which the prosecutor
             193      may file a notice of intent to seek the death penalty under Subsection (3)(c)(i).
             194          (4) (a) It is an affirmative defense to a charge of aggravated murder or attempted
             195      aggravated murder that the defendant caused the death of another or attempted to cause the
             196      death of another under a reasonable belief that the circumstances provided a legal justification
             197      or excuse for the conduct although the conduct was not legally justifiable or excusable under


             198      the existing circumstances.
             199          (b) The reasonable belief of the actor under Subsection (4)(a) shall be determined from
             200      the viewpoint of a reasonable person under the then existing circumstances.
             201          (c) This affirmative defense reduces charges only as follows:
             202          (i) aggravated murder to murder; and
             203          (ii) attempted aggravated murder to attempted murder.
             204          (5) (a) Any aggravating circumstance described in Subsection (1) or (2) that
             205      constitutes a separate offense does not merge with the crime of aggravated murder.
             206          (b) A person who is convicted of aggravated murder, based on an aggravating
             207      circumstance described in Subsection (1) or (2) that constitutes a separate offense, may also be
             208      convicted of, and punished for, the separate offense.
             209          Section 3. Section 76-7-301 is amended to read:
             210           76-7-301. Definitions.
             211          As used in this part:
             212          (1) (a) "Abortion" means:
             213          (i) the intentional termination or attempted termination of human pregnancy after
             214      implantation of a fertilized ovum[, and includes any and all procedures undertaken to kill a
             215      live unborn child and includes all procedures undertaken to produce a miscarriage.] through a
             216      medical procedure carried out by a physician or through a substance used under the direction
             217      of a physician;
             218          (ii) the intentional killing or attempted killing of a live unborn child through a medical
             219      procedure carried out by a physician or through a substance used under the direction of a
             220      physician; or
             221          (iii) the intentional causing or attempted causing of a miscarriage through a medical
             222      procedure carried out by a physician or through a substance used under the direction of a
             223      physician.
             224          (b) "Abortion" does not include:
             225          (i) removal of a dead unborn child[.];


             226          (ii) removal of an ectopic pregnancy; or
             227          (iii) the killing or attempted killing of an unborn child without the consent of the
             228      pregnant woman, unless:
             229          (A) the killing or attempted killing is done through a medical procedure carried out by
             230      a physician or through a substance used under the direction of a physician; and
             231          (B) the physician is unable to obtain the consent due to a medical emergency.
             232          (2) "Medical emergency" means that condition which, on the basis of the physician's
             233      good faith clinical judgment, so threatens the life of a pregnant woman as to necessitate the
             234      immediate abortion of her pregnancy to avert her death, or for which a delay will create
             235      serious risk of substantial and irreversible impairment of major bodily function.
             236          (3) (a) "Partial birth abortion" means an abortion in which the person performing the
             237      abortion:
             238          (i) deliberately and intentionally vaginally delivers a living fetus until, in the case of a
             239      head first presentation, the entire fetal head is outside the body of the mother, or, in the case of
             240      breech presentation, any part of the fetal trunk past the navel is outside the body of the mother,
             241      for the purpose of performing an overt act that the person knows will kill the partially
             242      delivered living fetus; and
             243          (ii) performs the overt act, other than completion of delivery, that kills the partially
             244      living fetus.
             245          (b) "Partial birth abortion" does not include the dilation and evacuation procedure
             246      involving dismemberment prior to removal, the suction curettage procedure, or the suction
             247      aspiration procedure for abortion.
             248          (4) "Physician" means:
             249          (a) a medical doctor licensed to practice medicine and surgery under Title 58, Chapter
             250      67, Utah Medical Practice Act[, a physician in the employment of the government of the
             251      United States who is similarly qualified, or];
             252          (b) an osteopathic physician licensed to practice osteopathic medicine under Title 58,
             253      Chapter 68, Utah Osteopathic Medical Practice Act[.]; or


             254          (c) a physician employed by the federal government who has qualifications similar to
             255      a person described in Subsection (4)(a) or (b).
             256          (5) "Hospital" means:
             257          (a) a general hospital licensed by the Department of Health according to Title 26,
             258      Chapter 21, Health Care Facility Licensing and Inspection Act[, and includes]; and
             259          (b) a clinic or other medical facility to the extent that such clinic or other medical
             260      facility [provides] is certified by the Department of Health as providing equipment and
             261      personnel sufficient in quantity and quality to provide the same degree of safety to the
             262      pregnant woman and the unborn child as would be provided for the particular medical
             263      procedures undertaken by a general hospital licensed by the Department of Health. [It shall be
             264      the responsibility of the Department of Health to determine if such clinic or other medical
             265      facility so qualifies and to so certify.]
             266          Section 4. Section 76-7-301.5 is enacted to read:
             267          76-7-301.5. Relationship to criminal homicide.
             268          (1) This part does not apply to the killing or attempted killing of a live unborn child in
             269      any manner that is not an abortion.
             270          (2) The killing or attempted killing of a live unborn child in a manner that is not an
             271      abortion shall be punished as provided in Title 76, Chapter 5, Part 2, Criminal Homicide.
             272          Section 5. Section 76-7-302 is amended to read:
             273           76-7-302. Circumstances under which abortion authorized.
             274          (1) As used in this section, "viable" means that the unborn child has reached a stage of
             275      fetal development when the unborn child is potentially able to live outside the womb, as
             276      determined by the attending physician to a reasonable degree of medical certainty.
             277          (2) An abortion may be performed in this state only by a physician [licensed to
             278      practice medicine under Title 58, Chapter 67, Utah Medical Practice Act or an osteopathic
             279      physician licensed to practice medicine under Title 58, Chapter 68, Utah Osteopathic Medical
             280      Practice Act].
             281          (3) An abortion may be performed in this state only under the following


             282      circumstances:
             283          (a) the unborn child is not viable; or
             284          (b) the unborn child is viable, if:
             285          (i) the abortion is necessary to avert:
             286          (A) the death of the woman on whom the abortion is performed; or
             287          (B) a serious risk of substantial and irreversible impairment of a major bodily function
             288      of the woman on whom the abortion is performed;
             289          (ii) two physicians who practice maternal fetal medicine concur, in writing, in the
             290      patient's medical record that the fetus has a defect that is uniformly diagnosable and uniformly
             291      lethal; or
             292          (iii) (A) the woman is pregnant as a result of:
             293          (I) rape, as described in Section 76-5-402 ;
             294          (II) rape of a child, as described in Section 76-5-402.1 ; or
             295          (III) incest, as described in Subsection 76-5-406 (10) or Section 76-7-102 ; and
             296          (B) before the abortion is performed, the physician who performs the abortion:
             297          (I) verifies that the incident described in Subsection (3)(b)(iii)(A) has been reported to
             298      law enforcement; and
             299          (II) complies with the requirements of Section 62A-4a-403 .
             300          [(4) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a woman who seeks to have,
             301      or obtains, an abortion for herself is not criminally liable.]
             302          Section 6. Section 76-7-314 is amended to read:
             303           76-7-314. Violations of abortion laws -- Classifications.
             304          [(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a woman who seeks to have or
             305      obtains an abortion for herself is not criminally liable.]
             306          [(2) A woman upon whom a partial birth abortion is performed may not be prosecuted
             307      under Section 76-7-326 or 76-7-329 for a conspiracy to violate Section 76-7-326 or 76-7-329 .]
             308          [(3)] (1) A willful violation of Section 76-7-307 , 76-7-308 , 76-7-310 , 76-7-310.5 ,
             309      76-7-311 , or 76-7-312 is a felony of the third degree.


             310          [(4)] (2) A violation of Section 76-7-326 [or 76-7-329 ] is a felony of the third degree.
             311          [(5)] (3) A violation of Section 76-7-314.5 is a felony of the second degree.
             312          [(6)] (4) A violation of any other provision of this part is a class A misdemeanor.
             313          Section 7. Section 76-7-314.5 is amended to read:
             314           76-7-314.5. Killing an unborn child.
             315          (1) A person is guilty of killing an unborn child if the person causes the death of an
             316      unborn child by performing an abortion of the unborn child in violation of the provisions of
             317      Subsection 76-7-302 (3).
             318          [(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a woman who seeks to have,
             319      or obtains, an abortion for herself is not criminally liable.]
             320          (2) A woman is not criminally liable for:
             321          (a) seeking to obtain, or obtaining, an abortion that is permitted by this part; or
             322          (b) a physician's failure to comply with Subsection 76-7-302 (3)(b)(ii) or Section
             323      76-7-305 .
             324          Section 8. Section 76-7-327 is amended to read:
             325           76-7-327. Remedies for father or maternal grandparents.
             326          (1) The father, if married to the mother at the time she receives a partial birth abortion,
             327      and if the mother has not attained the age of 18 years at the time of the abortion, the maternal
             328      grandparents of the fetus, may in a civil action obtain appropriate relief, unless the pregnancy
             329      resulted from the plaintiff's criminal conduct or the plaintiff consented to the abortion.
             330          (2) Such relief shall include:
             331          (a) money damages for all injuries, psychological and physical, occasioned by the
             332      violation of Section 76-7-326 [or 76-7-329 ]; and
             333          (b) statutory damages equal to three times the cost of the partial birth abortion.
             334          Section 9. Repealer.
             335          This bill repeals:
             336          Section 76-7-329, Person unauthorized to perform abortions -- Penalties.
             337          Section 10. Effective date.


             338          If approved by two-thirds of all the members elected to each house, this bill takes effect
             339      upon approval by the governor, or the day following the constitutional time limit of Utah
             340      Constitution Article VII, Section 8, without the governor's signature, or in the case of a veto,
             341      the date of veto override.
             342          Section 11. Coordinating H.B. 462 with H.B. 12 -- Superceding amendments.
             343          If this H.B. 462 and H.B. 12, Criminal Homicide and Abortion Amendments, both
             344      pass, it is the intent of the Legislature that H.B. 462 supersedes H.B. 12, and that the Office of
             345      Legislative Research and General Counsel prepare the Utah Code database for publication to
             346      reflect that H.B. 462 supersedes H.B. 12.


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